The Witness - Friday, 1 November 1918


SMYTH -- Oct. 18, at Heathfield, Loughmuck, Omagh, the wife of Captain W. J. Smyth, R.A.M.C., of a son.


DRYSDALE--SMALL -- October 23, 1918, at St. Paul's, Parish Church, Leith, by the Rev. Duncan Cameron, B.D., Matthew Robert Drysdale, B.A., T.C.D., Lieutenant R.G.A., only son of the late Rev. Robert R. Drysdale, M.A., Crossgar, Co. Armagh, Ireland, and Mrs. Drysdale, 16, Wellington Street, Edinburgh, to Elizabeth Whyte Small (Lily), eldest daughter of Mrs. Small, 17, Union Place, Edinburgh, late of Smith's Place, Leith.

M'KEE--MACINTOSH -- October 26, at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Ealing, by the Rev. W. S. Herbert Wylie, M.A., the Rev. John Strahan M'Kee, M.A., Glasleck Presbyterian Church, Co. Cavan, eldest son of the late Samuel M'Kee, M.D., and Mrs. M'Kee, Greenmount, Lisburn Road, Belfast, to Doris Isaline, younger daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Macintosh, King's Avenue, Ealing.


COCHRANE -- Oct. 26, 1918, at her residence, Ballygigan, Killinchy, Agnes, widow of the late David Cochrane, Tullyveery, Killyleigh. Interred in Killyleigh Churchyard on Monday, Oct. 28, 1918.

M'DOWELL -- Oct. 30, 1918, at her residence, 50, Copperfield Street, Belfast, Elizabeth, widow of the late William M'Dowell. Funeral this (Friday) morning, Nov. 1, at 10.30 for Ballymarlow Churchyard. Friends will please accept this intimation.

CASSELLS -- Oct. 27, at Park Parade, Lisburn, William Ronald (Willie), only son of George and Jeanie Cassells.

CHAMBERS -- Oct. 29, at 123, Antrim Road (of pneumonia), Miney Florence, elder and dearly-beloved daughter of Robert Chambers.

CROSBIE -- Oct. 27, at Winton, Farnham Park, Bangor, James Crosbie, in his 85th year.

DUNWOODY -- Oct 26, 1918, at her residence, Creevy, Lisburn, Agnes Dunwoody, late of Bridge Street.

FOSTER -- Oct, 26, Jane Wallace Foster, eldest daughter of the late Rev. James Foster, Newmills, Co. Tyrone.

FULLERTON -- At Rockmacraney, Richhill, John Fullerton, in the 89th year of his age.

GREER -- Oct. 28, at Tivaconaway, Samuel H. Greer, J.P.

HAMILTON -- Oct. 29, at Nurseryville, Comber, Sarah Hamilton, relict of the late David Hamilton, Sandholes.

HAYES -- Oct. 29, at 48, Atlantic Avenue, Belfast, William James, dearly-beloved husband of Emilie R. Hayes. Deeply regretted by his sorrowing Wife and Family.

HERDMAN -- Oct. 26, at Sion House, Emerson Tennent Herdman, D.L., aged 76.

HUNTER -- Oct. 30, at Little Ballymena, Ballyclare, Martha, beloved sister of John Hunter, aged 83 years.

HOPKINS -- Oct. 26, at Moyarget, Ballycastle, John Boyd Hopkins, aged 82.

HUME -- At Moneynick, Randalstown, Margaret Hume.

JACK -- Oct. 29, at Antrim View, Kinnegar, Holywood, Harold Arbuthnott Jack.

LYTTLE -- Oct. 25, at Mourne View, Donacloney, Howard, much-loved husband of Jeanie E. Lyttle.

M'CREIGHT -- Oct. 29, at the Cottage Hospital, Ballymena (suddenly, of pneumonia), Robert, third son of Thomas M'Creight, Craigywarren.

PARSONS -- Oct. 24, at Pretoria, South Africa, George Frederick, sixth son of Thomas Parsons, late Stralohan, Ballinamore, and Dunraymond House, Co. Monaghan.

STEWART -- Oct. 26, 1918, at her mother's residence, 30, Gray's Hill, Bangor, Mary Ann, widow of the late Andrew Stewart.

THOMPSON -- Oct. 25, at Catherine Street, Limavady, Alexander Francis Thompson, aged three years, elder son of Lawrence and Isabel Thompson.

THOMPSON -- At her husband's residence, Queen Street, Magherafelt, Lizzie, dearly-beloved wife of Hugh Thompson.

TOAL -- Oct 24, at Brackagh, Portadown, John Toal, in his 73rd year.

WATSON -- Oct. 2b, at New York (suddenly, of Spanish influenza), Evelyn Mary, beloved wife of E. Harry Watson, and youngest daughter of Mrs. Jellett. Morningside, Bangor.


GILLIS -- Mrs. Gillis and Family desire to thank all those friends who sympathised with them in their recent sad bereavement. Mullarts, Cushendun, 1st Nov., 1918.


Late Rev. J. R. Bartley.

Ministerial Appreciation.

Harvest Thanksgiving Services in connection with Trinity Church, Bailieborough, were conducted by the Rev. Alexander Hall, B.A., of Drogheda. At the week evening service there was a good attendance, while on Sabbath evening the church was filled to overflowing by an audience in which all the Protestant churches of the Bailieborough district were represented. At the latter service Mr. Hall made special reference to the late Rev. J. R. Bartley, LL.B., Tralee, and formerly of Belfast, whose tragic death is so widely lamented. Mr. Hall said that when, about a month ago, he was asked to conduct these harvest services he had little idea that he would be called upon at them to speak about the death of his old friend and school-fellow, the Rev. J. R. Bartley.

It was a terrible shock to him, and to those whom he was addressing, to take up the newspaper a week ago. and to find from it that Mr. Bartley was one of the victims of the last fiendish atrocity of the Hun, the sinking of the "Leinster." Since then, too, the intelligence had come that his elder son, Sergeant William Bartley, who had been serving with the Canadians at the front in France, had died of wounds in a London hospital. Mr. Hall made touching reference to the early days when John R. Bartley and himself had sat together in the same class in the Corglass Sabbath school, and to the time when they had been fellow-pupils at the Bailieborough Model School, under that born teacher, Mr. Doherty. Mr. Bartley, he said, had a fine mind, and a natural genius for mathematical and scientific studies. He received a sound classical training from his uncle, the Rev. William Ryder, and passed with distinction through Trinity College, Dublin. He pursued his theological studies in Belfast, Edinburgh, and Geneva, and was ordained minister of the congregation of Trenta, in County Donegal. His next sphere of labour was the congregation of Carnone, situated in the same county. Afterwards he accepted a call to the Reformed Presbyterian congregation of Botanic Avenue, Belfast, and laboured there for some years. Finally he was called to be the minister of the Presbyterian Church in Tralee, and there for many years he exercised a healthful influence, and was known as an able preacher and a faithful minister of Jesus Christ. He was twice married, his first wife being a daughter of the Rev. Donald Macalister, of the Greyfriars Free Church, Edinburgh. His second wife was Miss Orr, who at the time of her marriage was a member of the Botanic Avenue Reformed Presbyterian Church, and by her he had a son, now thirteen years of age, a pupil of Foyle College, Londonderry.


Australia's Tall Trees. -- The tallest of California's "big trees" is 325 feet in height, but among the great gum trees of Australia many specimens are more than 400 feet in height, and one, which was felled in south-east Australia, measured 471 feet -- the tallest tree on record.




Replying in Parliament to Mr. Hogge, who asked for information as to the safety of the Baku forces, Lord R. Cecil said the British forces are safe.

Prince Yorihito, of Higushi Fushimi of Japan, has arrived in London and presented to the King the Sword and Badge of a Japanese Field-Marshal on behalf of the Emperor of Japan.

The death is announced, at Sydney of the Right Rev. Dr. Montagu John Stone-Wigg, who was the first Bishop of New Guinea, a position which he resigned in 1908.

Mr. Robert Wallace, Mullyneill, Caledon, County Tyrone, whose funeral took place on Monday, had reached an advanced age, and had been for over 40 years the ruling elder of Minterburn Presbyterian Church.

Sir Eric Geddes, First Lord of the Admiralty, interviewed, said that if nothing came of the peace negotiations, Germany's underwater strength would too greater at the end of the year than it had ever been before.

From to-day, Mr. J. Lee, M.A., Belfast Postmaster, told the Belfast Rotary Club that all sailings to and from Ireland, with one exception, would be daylight ones. In Belfast late-fee post-boxes are being set up at some branch and sub-offices, collections from which will be made by cycle carriers.

Mr. Clynes stated in Parliament that the estimated weekly cost of the bread subsidy was from £1,040,000 to £1,150,000. The figure was largely dependent on the source of the imports and the tonnage available. He hoped that it would not exceed £50,000,000 for the year.

Opening an exhibition of Canadian war photos at Worthington, Sir Thomas Skinner said 500,000 Canadian troops had come overseas, in addition to an army of foresters, railroad construction and operating units. Some 50,000 had been killed in action. No fewer than forty Canadians had been awarded the V.C.

A boy, one of a group fishing at South Quay, Wick, with an ordinary small line and tackle, succeeded in hooking a large halibut. With the assistance of some onlookers the fish, after a severe struggle, was eventually landed on the wharf. It was found to weigh close on thirteen stones. It was purchased by a fish-dealer for £10 5s.

The death took place at Beechcroft, Belmont, of Mr. John Morrow, formerly representative in Belfast of the Ayr Steam-Shipping Company and the Laird Line, Ltd. He resigned, after serving these companies for thirty-three years, in June last, and was made the recipient of a retiring allowance and was presented with a handsome service of plate.

At a meeting of the ladies of Eglinton district, County Derry, it was decided to form a guild of the British and Foreign Sailors' Society. Mr. Lecky was appointed president, and Mrs. Scott, Willsborough, hon. secretary and treasurer. Mr. J. B. Scott, D.L, presided. Miss M'Granahan, B.A., organiser, and Mr. J. D. Gamble, M.B.E., addressed the meeting.

The authorities have suppressed and closed the Ballina Sinn Fein Hall. It is supposed that the reason for this step is the disorder which followed the W.A.A.C. recruiting meeting, when sharp collisions took place between the crowd and the police. It is alleged that the police were freely assailed with bottles, stones, and other missiles, and several baton charges took place.

The death is announced of Mr. W. A. Shea, D.L., a prominent figure in the political and business life of Dublin. Early in life he became identified with the Orange Institution, and had amongst his closest personal friends the late Mr. William Johnston, of Ballykilbeg. On his retirement from a lucrative position in the Inland Revenue, he manifested a keen interest in the Unionist cause, and rendered excellent service in various directions.

Shipping Disaster. -- The Canadian Pacific steamer, Princess Sophia, over 2,000 tons, from Skagway, has foundered with the loss of 268 passengers and seventy-five of a crew. A gale hurled the vessel across Vanderbilt reef, sending her to the bottom.

Recruiting Expenses. -- Mr. Beck, in the House of Commons,, answering Major Newman, said the cost incurred in connection with the Irish voluntary enlistment scheme from June 1 to the end of September, was £30,575, exclusive of cost of premises, stationery, &c., and propaganda for the same period cost £21,298.

"Our Day." -- A cablegram from Sir Reginald Wingate, High Commissioner in Egypt, announces that the result of "Our Day" appeals in Egypt has surpassed all previous records, over £180,000 having already been subscribed, with some of the lists not yet closed. It is announced from the Red Cross headquarters that already more than £1,500,000 is "in sight" as a result of this years appeal.

Republicans and President. -- According to the New York correspondent of the "Weekly Dispatch," not for many years has such a sensation reigned in American political circles as the President's plea to the nation to support his Administration by returning a Democratic majority to Congress at the elections on November 5, on the ground that, while the leaders of the minority in the present Congress have been pro-war, they have also been anti-Administration.

Labour Leader Held Up. -- The Sailors' and Firemen's Union have prevented Mr. Arthur Henderson and M. Camille Huysmans (Belgian Socialist leader) from crossing to France from Folkestone to meet Mr. Gompers in Paris. When the party left the harbour a taxi-cab driver refused to convey them to the railway station. In a subsequent statement Mr. Henderson said:-- "The reason given by the crew for their hostile attitude was that I and my friends were doing our work with the assistance of German money."

Ireland's Disgrace. -- Right Rev. Dr. Dowse, Protestant Bishop of Cork, said at the diocesan synod that the fact that Ireland generally had refused to take her proper and full share in the war must ever remain the measure of their degradation and disgrace. What an opportunity was given to the Nationalists of Ireland had they heartily and loyally espoused the cause of the Allies and sent the young men of the country to bear a glorious part in the fighting line in defeat of oppression and tyranny and the establishment of truth and right?

World's Cereal Crops. -- According to the International Agricultural Institute the total production of wheat in Spain, Great Britain, Italy, Luxemburg, Switzerland, Canada, the United States, India, Japan, Egypt, and Tunis is estimated at 1,072,738,000 cwt., or 19.1 per cent, above last year; of rye 59,642,000 cwt., or 26.1 per cent, above last year; of barley 230,040,000 cwt., or 3.2 per cent, above last year's production; of oats, 642,434,000 cwt., or 1 per cent, lower than last year; and of maize 1,353,468,000 cwt., a diminution of 15.3 per cent, compared with last year.

Women and Agriculture. -- Speaking at an exhibition in London of village life and industries organised by the National Federation of Women's Institutes, Mr. Prothero said it was quite possible that the next President of the Board of Agriculture might be a woman. When the war was over the need for more food was not going suddenly to cease, but it would go on increasing. He wanted Women's Institutes to make the lives of people more cheerful, so that the men who had been fighting should find the villages brighter than they had left them.

Irish Convention. -- Mr. George Bernard Shaw, lecturing in Dublin, said the Irish Convention had cured him of any belief that Irishmen had, in some directions, a certain political and religious genius. The majority, in any other country, would have issued their report and confirmed their opinions; but, instead, they allowed two relatively small minorities to issue reports, and the great mass of the members did not take the trouble to come to any definite decision. The majority won its game, and would not take the winnings, but allowed their opponents to go away with the spoils.

Mineral Development. -- There was loud laughter in the House of Commons when the Chief Secretary, being asked by Mr. Hazleton whether the promise of the development of mineral and other Irish resources was like all the other promises of that gentleman, replied, "It will be kept as rigorously as the others." In reply to Ald. Byrne, Mr. Shortt said Lord French's speech on the subject at Belfast in August was made after consultation with him, and the question was engaging attention; but he could not say when they were likely to have "the programme."

The Bolshevik Documents. -- Mr. Sisson, who is publishing, in Washington, documents said to have passed between the Bolsheviks and Germany, prints a document which, he believes to have been sent secretly by the German Government to military attaches overseas in June, 1914 (eight weeks before the war), informing them that they may draw unlimited funds for promoting strikes, damaging vessels, firing raw materials, &c., and giving lists of persons to serve under them as agents of destruction. A document dated February, 1915, authorises propaganda to create civil war, industrial discontent, separatism within the State, &c.

Irish Channel Tunnel. -- A special article is published in the "Morning Post" on the commercial advantages of a tunnel between Great Britain and Ireland. After referring to previous schemes and the routes between Scotland and Antrim it is pointed out that since these schemes were put forward the cost of labour has increased enormously, and the original estimate has gone by the board, but the war has taught us to think in millions, and if the necessity of the Irish tunnel were proved the money consideration would hot be likely to stand in the way. Setting aside the cost and the fact that subaqueous tunnels, unless undertaken with almost mathematical preparation, as speculative as boring for oil or digging for diamonds, there remains the unchallengeable argument of the reduction in distance between Great Britain and Ireland which such a scheme would practically bring to pass.

A monster potato of the Burbank variety, weighing 3lb. 11oz., is on exhibition in Ballymena. The potato was grown by Mr. R. G. Bell, Tardree, Kells, near Ballymena.

Miss E. C. Bell, daughter of Mr. J. W. Bell, J.P., Roseberry, Ballymena, has been appointed principal technical instructress in Larne by the Technical Committee of that town.

A letter just delivered at Wilmslow (Cheshire) was posted at Dromore, County Down, on 15th August, 1912. It was addressed to a Wilmslow soldier, and has been over six years in the post.

The Indian Office has received a telegram announcing that the rainfall has been normal in Scinde; fair in Assam, Mysore, Malabar, and Madras South-East; scanty except in the south of the peninsula.

Miss Sylvia Pankhurst, hon. secretary Workers' Suffrage Federation, was fined £50 and costs at Eckington, Derbyshire, for making a speech likely to cause mutiny, sedition, or disaffection amongst his Majesty's forces or the civilian population.

Mr. William George Hoey, Dyan House, Caledon, has been appointed to the commission of the peace for the County of Tyrone. Mr. Hoey is an extensive farmer, and is well known throughout Ulster as a leading breeder and judge of shorthorn cattle.

The dearth has taken place at his residence, Downpatrick Street, Rathfriland, of Mr. Stephen Toman, J.P., one of the principal merchants of the town, and the chairman of the Newry No. 1 (County Down) Rural District Council.

Further increases in Dublin tramway fares are notified. These increases will come into force on and after Monday, and are stated, to be due to recent additional wages and loss of revenue due to curtailment of service. This will be the second increase within the year.

Lord Derby, speaking at the Inter-Allied Club in Paris, said that Britain had got to keep command of the seas not only for herself, but for the Allies. The end was in sight, but they must obtain reparation and punishment for those who had broken every law of God and man.

The Lord Mayor (Alderman Sir James Johnston, J.P.) has received a letter from his Majesty King Manuel, thanking him for the arrangements made for his visit, and expressing his regret that he was unable to stay several days, and to have had the necessary time to visit the city's wonderful works and industries.

"I hear," says "Man About Town." in the "Evening Telegram," that King Mancel is waxing quite eloquent on Ireland, and is thinking of buying a house there as soon as the war is over."

It is officially announced that Lord Beaverbrook has resigned his office of Minister of Information owing to ill-health. In a letter to the Prime Minister he adds an expression of confidence in Mr. Lloyd George's administration. Mr. Lloyd Georgs accepts the resignation with regret.

Mr. Bonar Law answered "No" when Mr. King asked in Parliament if, in view of the improved military and political outlook, and of the example of other belligerents, the Government would release all persons now in prison for political offences, Irish prisoners being allowed to return to Ireland.

Potatoes in Bread. -- Major Astor stated in Parliament that it is proposed to apply the Potato Bread Order to Ireland. The use of a small percentage of potatoes in the manufacture of bread was favoured by the late Sir H. Thompson, T.C.D., Scientific Adviser to the Food Ministry. The quality of the bread in Ireland is, he says, the same as that supplied in England.

Russians Regeneration. -- Sir Geo. Buchanan formerly British Ambassador at Petrograd, who spoke in Glasgow under the auspices of the Russo-Scottish Society, said that had the Emperor made timely concessions he might have saved the Crown. The Empress was not pro-German, but a reactionary. Bolsheviks were not democrats, but anarchists. Sir George believed in Russia's regeneration, but said that we must help with advice and capital.

Re-Scutched Tow Regulations. -- The re-scutched tow off flax of the 1918 crop grown in Ireland, of which possession is taken by the Ministry of Munitions, will be divided under the Director-General of Aircraft Production into three grades, according to quality, and the Minister will pay the following prices:-- First grade, £135 per ton, delivered; second grade, £125; third grade, £115. Fine tow, which is not re-scutched tow, inferior in quality to the third grade, will be paid for according to relative values.

Punish the Criminals. -- Rev. Dr. Fort Newton, of the City Temple, who has returned to London after an extended visit to the United States, interviewed, said there was really no peace sentiment in America. All were agreed that the Allies must stop at nothing short of the destruction of the military autocracy of the Central Powers. Asked what was the feeling of the American people with regard to the punishment of those responsible for the crimes committed during the war. Dr. Fort Newton said the American people believed not only that it could be done, but that it should be done. No man or set of men ought to escape punishment, however high their state.

23,000 Tons of Cold a Year. -- In the endeavour to give the public some idea of the stupendous nature of our war effort, Mr. Alfred Milnes, lecturing at the National Libera1 Club, London, on "The Foundations of Reconstruction," said that 23,585 tons of 22-carat gold would be required to discharge our war expenditure for the current year. If it were possible to obtain this gold to pay for the war as we went along, it would require 11,792 coal carts to convey the bullion. Another method of estimate gave the cost of the war for the current year at £95 a second, or £342,465 an hour. It was, as a matter of fact, impossible to pay for the war in gold, as all the gold in the world amounted to only two thousand millions, or about two-thirds of the amount required.

Bishop's Death-bed Message. -- The death took place in London, at the age of 77, of Dr. Boyd-Carpenter, formerly Bishop of Ripon. Born at Liverpool in 1841, he was of Irish extraction, his mother being a daughter of the late Mr. Archibald Boyd, of Londonderry. The late Dr. Boyd-Carpenter, who was the author of a large number of well-known theological works, preached the sermon at the opening of St. Anne's Cathedral, Belfast. One of his sons. Mr. J. P. Boyd-Carpenter contested West Belfast in 1910. A few hours before his death Bishop Boyd-Carpenter directed that the following message be sent to the King:-- "As I pass I give you my loyal love." His Majesty, in a telegram of sympathy to Captain Boyd-Carpenter, said -- "The touching farewell message is a testimony to that loyal and devoted friendship which three successive Sovereigns possessed and valued in the gifted, large-minded Bishop."


Gallantry Rewarded.

Intimation has reached Belfast that the Military Cross has been awarded to Captain John Finnegan, R.A.M.C., elder son of Mr. J. M. Finnegan, B.Sc., secretary of Queen's University, Belfast, Captain Finnegan was in practice in London before joining the Army Medical Service. He has been two and a half years at the front, and his hunger briber is missing since the March retreat. Captain Finnegan is married to a daughter of Mr. Robert Thompson, Dundela Villa, Strandtown.

Lieut. J. B. Young, North Irish Horse, son of Mr. Robert Young, Church Street, Antrim, and nephew of Rev. C. M. Young, Bloomfield, has received the M.C. for conspicuous gallantry in the field. Lieut. Young, who was educated at the R.B.A.I., joined the N.I.H. in January, 1915, as a trooper, and he received his commission through a cadet battalion. He is at present in hospital in Devonport suffering from wounds in the right arm recieved in action about the beginning of the month.



Presbyterian Names.

A tragedy of a peculiarly distressing character is revealed by the announcement of the death from wounds received in action of Sergeant William Bartley, Canadian Infantry, elder son of the late Rev. J. R. Bartley, LL.B., Presbyterian minister, Tralee, and formerly of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, Botanic Avenue, Belfast. While crossing to Holyhead, en route to London to see his son, Rev. J. R. Bartley lost his life through the torpedoing by an enemy submarine of the Royal mail steamer Leinster. The late Sergeant Bartley, who succumbed to his injuries in a military hospital in Tooting, was formerly in the service of the Imperial Bank of Canada. He was a nephew of Rev. Thomas Bartley, B.A., of Ballycarry Presbyterian Church.

A severe blow has fallen upon the Very Rev. Dr. John Brown, Bellahouston, Glasgow, Moderator of the Church of Scotland, in the death in action on the 14th inst. of Captain William Sandilands Brown, North Stafford Regiment, the second (and only surviving) of four sons. The youngest son, a second-lieutenant in the Gordons, was killed in the Somme battle, July, 1916. The eldest son, a captain in the H.L.I., died in April, 1917, of wounds received before Gaza; and the third son, a second-lieutenant in the Black Watch, was mortally wounded in Mesopotamia, and died in May, 1917.

Rev. T. B. Hardy, V.C., D.S.O., M.C., Chaplain to the Forces, whose death from gunshot wounds is officially reported, was a native of London. He married a daughter of the late Mr. Wm. Hastings, C.E., of Belfast, and his only son, Captain W. H. Hardy, R.A.M.C., who is serving with the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, is a graduate of Queen's University of Belfast. This heroic chaplain was awarded the Victoria Cross last July for most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on many occasions. Deceased was a brother-in-law of Mrs. R. G. Glendinning, Belfast.

Second-Lieut. J. Wilson, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, killed in action, obtained his commission from a cadet unit in April, 1918, and went to the front in August last. He was a son of Mr. Joseph Wilson. Glenalt, Omagh, and a nephew of Mr. Frank Crawford, Bellevue, Omagh, and was educated at Omagh Academy, Foyle College, and Trinity College.

Captain Hugh G. Morrow, M.C., Royal Irish Rifles, killed in action, was the only son of Mr. Andrew Morrow, Balmoral, Belfast, and formerly of Lisburn, secretary of the County Down Committee of Agriculture. This officer served his apprenticeship with Messrs. Ross Bros., Ltd., Linenhall Street, and obtained his commission in July, 1916. For his gallantry at the Battle of Cambrai in November, 1917, he was awarded the M.C.

Lieut. M. H. Gibson, M.C., Royal Irish Rifles, killed in action, was a son of Mr. D. Gibson, Chesnut Gardens, Belfast, manager of Messrs, Eason's, Ltd., Donegall Street. Lieutenant Gibson came from Mexico to offer his services. He was awarded the Military Cross in 1917, and in September last his brother Jack, of the Y.C.V.'s, won the Ulster Divisional Certificate for gallantry in the field at the opening of the Battle of the Somme on 1st July, 1916, was wounded twice, and was recently discharged as being physically unfit for further military service.

Ulster Ministers.

Rev. W. H. Hutchinson, C.F., Army Chaplains' Department, wounded, was Presbyterian minister at Cullybackey before enlisting in the ranks. After two years' service he was appointed to a chaplaincy on 2nd February, 1917, and has latterly been attached to a R.I. Rifles battalion. The rev. gentleman was assistant minister of Fisherwick before receiving a call to Cullybackey. He was gassed a few weeks ago.

Rev. T. M. Johnstone, B.A., Newington Presbyterian Church, Belfast, who has been out in France working, under the auspices of the Y.M.C.A., has just been invalided home suffering from a nervous breakdown. Mr. Johnstone for the past two months was in charge of three first-line huts -- at the time the most advanced posts in the army area -- and during that period went through some rather trying experiences, having on one occasion had a most miraculous escape in an air raid. His health is being restored, and it is hoped that in a few weeks he will be able to resume his congregational work.

Second-Lieutenant Fergus Y. Knox, Royal Irish Rifles, wounded, is the son of Rev. D. B. Knox, Whitehead, editor of "The Irish Presbyterian." He went to France, in July, 1916, was promoted acting-captain in February, 1917, and served in that capacity till he was wounded in July of the same year. After recovery he was bombing instructor in Carrickfergus and Salisbury camps. While in the latter camp he was appointed to the regular army. He returned to the front in September last, and served till he was again wounded on 22nd inst.

Captain David B. Woodburn, who has been wounded for the third time, is a son of Rev. Professor Woodburn, M'Crea Magee College. Captain Woodburn was a student of the college, and went to Trinity in 1914,, when he joined the O.T.C. He obtained his commission in 1915 in the R.G.A.

Rev. John Watson, B.A., Second Dungannon Presbyterian Church, has received intimation, that his brother, Gunner Robert J. Watson, Canadian Artillery, has been wounded, and is in hospital in England.

Lieutenant W. H. Osborne, Leinster Regiment, son of Rev. Dr. Denham Osborne, Dublin, is under treatment in a hospital, in France for multiple gunshot wounds received in a recent advance. His condition, though he is seriously ill, is, up to the present, fairly satisfactory.

Captain W. F. Hogg, M.C., R.I.R., wounded, is the elder son of Mr. Wm. Hogg, 63, Anglesea Road, and 23, Bachelor's Walk, Dublin, a former resident of Bangor County Down. He was educated at Bangor Endowed School, St. Andrew's College, Dublin, and Trinity College. He obtained his commission in the 3rd Battalion Royal Irish Rifles through the Trinity College Contingent of the Officers' Training Corps in March, 1915, and on going to the front was posted to the Young Citizens Volunteers. He won the Military Cross at the opening of the battle of the Somme in July, 1916, and was wounded during the following winter.

Pulpit References.

At the close of his sermon in Hydepark Church on Sunday last, the Rev. Craig Houston made reference to the lamented death of First Lieutenant John Carruth in the recent fighting on the Western front. Having expressed his sincere sympathy with the widow and kinsfolk of the dead soldier. Mr. Houston said he was sure that in doing so he was only voicing the feelings of everyone present, and, indeed, of the entire community. It was not so very long since Lieutenant Carruth was on leave, looking the very picture of health and manly vigour. Having done a man's part in the fighting in Palestine, he was quite recently transferred to the Western front, where a few days ago, according to information received by his relatives, he fell mortally wounded while battling for what he believed to be, and what we all believed to be, a just and righteous cause. It was a great pleasure for him that day to recall the fact that while Lieutenant Carruth was still a monitor in the local National school he boldly stepped out from amongst the youth of his own age and took his place at the Lord's Table and showed himself on the Lord's side, and that, too, without urging or solicitation from any quarter, thereby setting an example, which alas! only too few young men at the present time seemed either to have the desire or the courage to imitate. That fact would of itself, he thought, enable one to form a pretty correct estimate of the man's character and moral worth. But there was another fact scarcely less creditable which he was glad to place on record, and which left us in no doubt with regard to Lieutenant Carruth's high standard of duty or as to the correctness of his ideals. When he was at home on leave some time after after the death of his brother Matthew (who was killed in one of the earlier battles of the war) an acquaintance was lamenting the sad occurrence and offering his condolences. The reply which Lieutenant Carruth's interlocutor received, and which, according to the testimony of the latter, surprised him greatly, was -- "I am naturally sorry to have lost my brother; but I should much rather think of him as one who died for others than see him living comfortably at home and letting others die for him." All that was mortal of John Carruth was now lying in a new-made grave in a foreign land. It was sad, very sad, to think that we should see his face no more. But his friends, of whom he had many, would not forget him. Few of them, perhaps none of them -- would ever have the melancholy privilege of visiting his far off grave or dropping perchance a tear upon it. None the less, they would surely cherish, through all the years to come, the dear soldier's memory, and at the same time solace themselves with the thought that beyond the grave and beyond this world of time there was a place where friends divided for a while by death would meet together again.

Rev. W. G. Strahan, B.A., Newry, preaching in First Portadown Presbyterian Church, made a sympathetic reference to the death of Sergeant Thomas Sprott, R.A.M.C. He said:-- Tidings were received during the past week that a young man closely connected with their congregation had died in Palestine. I refer to Sergt. Thomas Sprott, R.A.M.C. I knew him intimately a number of years ago. He was then living in Newry, and a member of my congregation. It was through a communicants class conducted by me he entered the communion of the Church. I then formed a very high opinion of him, and felt assured that there [xxxxxxxxxxx] Christian fidelity. He entered the army at very considerable sacrifice; he did so because it was his duty. He heard God's call to serve Him in that way. I count it a privilege to be here to speak of him to-day, and I am sure I am expressing your feelings as well as my own, when I assure his father, who is an elder among you, and his mother and all his sorrowing relatives, of our sincere sympathy with them in their loss and sorrow.

Rev. James Buchanan, M.A., pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, Rathfriland, at the conclusion of his sermon on Sabbath on Matthew X. 28 made feeling reference at the close of it to Lance-Corporal David Patterson, who had been lately killed at the Western Front. He said that it was his melancholy duty to refer to the death in action of this young man. He was killed instantaneously according to private news received at his home in Lisnamulligan from one of his intimate companions. He joined the military forces shortly after the commencement of the war. He must have had very trying experiences during all the years of conflict. One of the things he prized most was the New Testament, which he carried in his breast pocket. His teachers in the Sabbath-school can testify to his ability in answering. He had a very intelligent grasp of what he read. He was of a bright, cheerful disposition, and put his whole soul into any game. He had his apprenticeship almost served in one of the grocery shops of Rathfriland when he enlisted. He was advanced to be lance-corporal soon after he joined up. He felt very sad the last time he was home. He no doubt thought of the hardships to be endured and that he might never return. He was a brave lad, like David of old who slew Goliath because he defied the armies of the living God. To all the members of the home circle we tender our sincerest sympathy in their being plunged into sorrow so suddenly when they had cherished hopes of the war soon being over and seeing their loved one back again among them. We pray that in their sorrow each and all in the home may experience the power of the promise, "My grace is sufficient for thee."


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The Witness - Friday, 08 November 1918


BUNGEY--FULTON -- Sept. 5, at H. B. M. Consulate-General, Moukden, Manchuria, by P. E. O'Brien-Butler, Esq., and afterwards in the West Church, by the Rev. G. Douglas, M.A., and the Rev. James Carson, B.A., William Blade Bungey, Esq., to Kathleen, only daughter of the Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Fulton. Moukden.

M'CONNELL--WATERS -- Nov. 2, at St. Hilda's Church, Old Trafford, by Rev. Richards, Captain A. Ernest M'Connell, R.E., son of James M'Connell, J.P., Belfast, to Christina Isobel, youngest daughter of P. Waters, Old Trafford, Manchester.


BROWN -- Nov. 6, at his residence, Willowpark, Whiteabbey, Andrew, the dearly-beloved husband of Martha Q. Brown, and only son of the late Malcolm Brown, Kirkhill, Whiteabbey. Interred at Carnmoney Graveyard, to-day (Friday), November 8th.

CARSON -- Oct. 27, at Knaresboro', Yorkshire, Hannah Porter, the beloved wife of Joseph Carson. Interred in the family burying-ground at "The Temple," Keady, Armagh.

ANDERSON -- Oct. 31, at her residence. Plantation, Upperlands, Annie, widow of the late James Anderson. Sadly missed by her sorrowing Family. J. A. K. ANDERSON.

BAIRD -- Nov. 1, 1918, at 2, Liscard Terrace, Belfast, Clara E., the beloved wife of Robert H. H. Baird.

BROWN -- Nov. 1, at Bangor Demesne, Bangor (of pneumonia), Eleanor, beloved wife of Samuel P. Brown, and second daughter of Wm. Campbell, Ballycreely. Comber.

BOAL -- Nov. 2, Catherine (Katie), youngest daughter of George Boal, Church Street, Antrim.

CALWELL -- Nov. 1, at Spafield, Holywood, Walter Calwell (Brookfield Linen Co., Ltd.).

CARREY -- Nov. 1, at Newtownstewart, Co. Tyrone, William M'Kinley Carrey, cashier of Northern Bank, Newtownstewart, and dearly-beloved son of W. T. Carrey, Carrickfergus.

CLARKE -- Oct. 31, at her father's residence, Largymore House, Lisburn, Mary Helen Clarke, aged 14 years.

COLBURN -- Oct. 30, at Ballydonaghy, Crumlin, Sarah, relict of the late George Colburn.

DICKEY -- Nov. 4, at Oakham, J. S. P. Dickey, M.A. (Oxon.), M.B., Ch.B., Edin., elder son of the late Professor Dickey, D.D., of M'Crea Magee College, and of Mrs. Dickey, Melton Mowbray, Medical Officer to Rutlandshire Volunteers, aged 35 (Pneumonia).

DUNN -- At her residence, 7, Mark Street, Portrush, Annie C., younger daughter of John Dunn, Ballyskeagh, Artigarvan, Strabane.

GREER -- Nov. 2, at Craiganore, Greenisland, oldest and dearly-loved daughter of James Crymble, Post Office, Greenisland.

HARTY -- Nov. 1 (All Saints' Day), in Dublin, William Harty, organist and choirmaster of Hillsborough Parish Church, Co. Down, aged 66 years.

LIVINGSTONE -- Nov. 2, at 90, High Street, Lurgan, Ellie, dearly-beloved daughter of Hamilton Livingstone.

LOGAN -- Oct. 31, 1918, at the Bucks County Asylum, Stone, Aylesbury, Dr. Thomas Stratford Logan (Assistant Medical Officer), son of the late Dr. William Logan, Bingley, Yorkshire, and of Mrs. Frances Logan, a Knocknagulla, Whitehead.

LUNDY -- Oct, 12, 1918, at Philadelphia (of Influenza), Charles Albert, youngest son of Joseph Lundy, "Fortview," Carrickmacross.

M'CULLOUGH -- Nov. 1, at Mallymackeonan, Maralin, John, dearly-beloved son of Thomas and Eliza Jane M'Cullough.

M'ILWRATH -- Nov. 1, at 36, William Street, Edinburgh, Scotland, Hamilton M'Ilwrath, eldest son of William M'Ilwrath, Balloo, Killinchy.

M'KEE -- Nov. 1, at Aldershot, Robert Angus Malcolm, B.Sc., C.E., younger son of the late Robert M'Kee, Clontarf, Dublin.

M'WHINNEY -- Nov. 3. at Carney Hill, Templepatrick, Samuel M'Whinney.

RUSSELL -- Oct. 31. at his father's residence, 42, Causeway Street, Portrush, Samuel, second and dearly-beloved son of Robert and Mary Russell, aged 20 years.

WARING -- Oct. 31 (suddenly, of pneumonia), at 15, Smithfield, Lisburn, James Waring.

YOUNG -- Nov. 2, at Ballygarvin, Kirkcubbin, Jane, dearly-beloved wife of Wm. Young, and only daughter of William Thomas M'Giffert, Ballytrustan.

In Memoriam

ADAMS -- In loving memory of Robert Adams, who passed away on 7th November, 1909, in his 69th year. Rev. vii. 13-17.




Submarine Cruisers. -- A Danish frontier journal asserts that the Germans have succeeded in constructing armoured submarines cruisers 115 metres a displacement of 2,000 tons and carrying a crew of eighty men, and two 15cm. guns and two 8.8mm. guns.

Cup of Sorrow. -- Mrs. Russell, of Leamington, has received news that her youngest son has been killed at the front, so that she has lost all her four sons in the war. Her husband died in April; and her daughter succumbed to shock on hearing that her lover had been killed.

Irish Hay Crop. -- The Department of Agriculture for Ireland states the hay crop, suffered this year from want of heat and rain in June, and the yields of all classes of hay were below the average for the ten-yearly period 1908-17. In quality this year's crop is somewhat superior to that of 1917.

Mr. Hayes Fisher Resigns. -- Sir Auckland Geddes has been appointed President of the L.G.B. in place of Mr. Hayes Fisher, who has resigned and has been appointed Chancellor of the Duchy with a peerage. Rumours of the resignation, which was stated to be due to friction with the Cabinet on account of the unpreparedness of the voters' lists, were officially denied.

Unpopularity of Teaching. -- Mr. A. Tasher, in his presidential address to the London Teachers' Association, gave figures to show the growing unpopularity of the teaching profession, parents being unwilling to allow their children to enter a profession notorious for nervous strain, financial worry, and daily drudgery.

Potato Prices. -- The Food Controller has fixed the price for potatoes exported from Ireland to England and elsewhere during November and December at £6 10s per ton, free alongside agreed ports, for approved varieties. It is expected that the whole exportable surplus of Irish potatoes will be required by the Allied Armies.

Letters to the Liberated. -- Postal communication has been established by the French authorities direct between Lille, Tourcoing, and Roubaix and Paris, and will, no doubt, also be established with the other towns in which large numbers civilians have been liberated. It is, therefore, possible for persons to write direct to their relatives in these towns.

Death of Urban Councillor. -- Mr. David Russell, draper and member of the Urban Council, died at residence, The Diamond, Clones, at the age of 45. Deceased, who was a native of Raphoe, was a very energetic and successful business man, and exceedingly popular. In religion a Presbyterian, he was a strong Unionist, and prominently identified with the Orange Order.

"Irish Questions" in Hungary. -- Mr. Harold Cox, writing in the "Sunday Times," mentions having some years ago in Budapest spoken to the late Prof. Vambrey, the distinguished traveller and Oriental scholar, of the Irish question, and the professor held up his hand deprecatingly. "Oh, do not talk about your Irish question," he said, "in Hungary alone we have thirteen Irish questions."

Assisting Soldiers. -- The committee of the United Farmers of Ontario recommends that soldiers who have had adequate training in agriculture should be assisted in securing land in settled portions of Ontario, and that a Commission representing the Government, manufacturers, labour unions, farmers' organisations, and the great war veterans should be constituted to deal with labour conditions during the period of reconstruction.

Jews and Palestine. -- Sir Alfred Mood, M.P., has informed Mr. Israel Cohen that he will contribute £25,000 to the Jewish National Fund for the purchase of land in Palestine. The Jewish National Fund, which is registered as an English limited company, is the instrument of the Zionist organisation for the acquisition of land in Palestine as the inalienable possession of the Jewish people.

Allegiance Oath. -- At a special Congress of the Irish Trades Union Congress and Labour party in Dublin, Mr. Kelly (Postmen's Federation) obtained leave to introduce a resolution, which was carried unanimously, that the Congress condemned the arbitrary action of the british Government in forcing Irish civil servants to take the oath of allegiance under threat of dismissal as being a breach of contract and contrary to all sense of justice.

Water Official's Death. -- The death took place at his residence in Whitehead of Mr. Andrew Mitchell, an official of the City and District Water Commissioners. Formerly he was in business as a cabinetmaker, and at that time was a member of the Water Board. Subsequently he gave up business, and was appointed an inspector by the Board. In Whitehead he was connected with St. Patrick's Church, of which he was one of the churchwardens.

U-Boat Shells Cow. -- When St. Kilda was shelled at long range by an enemy submarine the inhabitants took refuge in the hills until the bombardment was over. On returning they found the church had been damaged, and that a shell had struck a byre attached to the manse. Some of the masonry was dislodged, and a cow imprisoned. When the debris was cleared the terrified cow jumped clean over the heads of the men who had freed her.

Brooklyn Train Disaster. -- In a railway crash at Brooklyn eighty-five persons were killed, and as many more injured. It was the first day of a motorman's strike, and the train jumped the tracks, a terrible scene of panic occurring amongst the 900 men, women, and children passengers. Some of the cars took fire, and many persons were pinned under the wreckage. Passengers allege that the inexperienced driver, Green, kept up a terrific speed, taking curves recklessly.

Ex-Councillor's Death. -- One of the oldest citizens of Belfast, and one who was formerly prominent as a public man, Mr. James Adams, has just passed away at his residence, Wilmont Terrace, at the patriarchal age of ninety-four. Mr. Adams, who was a member of the Corporation for twenty years, and was also a Poor-law Guardian, was engaged in the bakery trade before the modern developments in connection with that trade began, and his business was extensive and prosperous. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church and of the Orange Institution.

A Vicar's Mistake. -- Having heard a report that Germany had accepted President Wilson's terms, and taking this to mean that peace had been declared, the Rev. Edgar Lea Reeves, vicar of Little Walsingham, Norfolk, caused the church bells to be chimed. illuminated the church steps, and allowed the church clock to strike during the night of Sunday, 13th October. For these offences he was fined 28s. The magistrates stated that even if peace had been declared no one had the right to take the law into his own hands before the orders under the Defence of the Realm Act had been revoked.

Women's League for Belfast. -- The Lord Mayor (Sir James Johnston) presided over a meeting in Belfast at which a branch of the War Service and Women's Legion was formed, and an influential committee appointed. The Marchioness of Londonderry said there was a necessity in Belfast for a club for the motor drivers' section of the Legion, and it should be open to all war workers. Many thought it was rather late in the day for the starting of a club, but she was advised at the War Office to continue on as before, as the conditions, so far as they were concerned, would continue for months.

American Editors' Visit. -- A third party of American Editors have arrived in London as guests of the British Government to see Britain's war effort at first hand. The party consists of:-- Dr. Douglas MacKenzie (President, Hartford Theological Seminary and prominent writer in religious journals), Mr. Ernest Hamlin Abbott ("The Outlook"), Dr. Clifton Grey ("The Chicago Standard"), Mr. Charles Clayton Morrison ("Chicago Independent"), Mr. Philip Howard ("Sunday-school Times"), Mr. Wm. Revell Moody ("The Record of Christian Work"), Mr. Guy Shippler ("The Churchman"), Mr. Dan Brearley Brummitt ("Howorth Herald"), Mr. R. W. Gammon ("Congregationalist"), Mr. Jackson Fleming ("Christian Advocate"). Ireland will be included in the tour.

League of Free Nations. -- Addressing Down and Connor and Dromore Synod, at Belfast, Right Rev. Dr. D'Arcy, referring to the League of Nations, said the war had revealed the weakness of the Christian Church. If the free peoples overthrew Prussianism and brought it utterly to nought they could then establish a League of Free Nations, but it was necessary to be very careful Prussianism was really destroyed. It was intended to promote the work of the Free Nations' Association by enlisting the aid of the Christian Churches, and it was proposed to set a Sunday apart to bring its efforts before the public and commend it to their sympathy and prayers. Leaders of various Churches were invited to become members of the Council of the Society, but he felt compelled to decline.

Our National Anthem. -- The absence of any allusion to the Empire in the National Anthem has prompted the Royal Colonial Institute through its journal, "United Empire," to invite suggestions for an "Empire verse" which might prove suitable for incorporation in the National Anthem. Publicity was given to the competition in the Press of Great Britain and the Overseas Dominions, and some 400 competitors sent in verses. In the opinion of the adjudicators -- Sir Herbert Warren (late Professor of Poetry at Oxford University), Mr. Edmund Gosse, and Mr. Laurence Dinyon -- the following verse was the best offered:--
    Wide o'er the linking seas,
    Polar and tropic breeze.
       Our song shall bring.
    Brothers of each domain,
    Bound but by Freedom's chain,
    Shont, as your sires, again --
       "God Save the King!"

National Debt. -- Mr. Baldwin informed the House of Commons that the dead-weight National Debt outstanding on Sept. 30 was, approximately, £6,875,000,000.

Election Paper and Petrol. -- A supply of paper for election literature is being provided by the Government, who have also arranged for a petrol allowance to Parliamentary candidates of from 10 to 80 gallons.

America's 4,000,000 Army. -- General Crowder has announced at Washington draft calls for the mobilisation of 281,000 men before November 21, bringing the number drafted for military service to over 3,000,000 and the total number of the United States Army, including those in the field and training to over 4,000,000.

Belfast Visitors to Parliament. -- Mr. H. M. Pollock, J.P. (chairman of the Belfast Harbour Board); Mr. D. J. Owen (secretary), and Mr. R. Dawson Bates (secretary to the Ulster Unionist Council) were among the visitors to the House of Commons on Wednesday.

Welsh Hymns for Welsh Troops. -- It is notified in an Army Council instruction that a special collection of hymns (Hymnau Cymreig), printed in the Welsh language and suitable for both Church of England and Nonconformists, has been compiled for use by Welsh-speaking soldiers.

Cattle Prices. -- At Midland and West of Ireland fairs there was a remarkable drop in prices for sheep, cattle, and horses. Sheep dropped 10s per head, and beef 15s per cwt. Many animals were left unsold. The proximity of peace and the scarcity of buyers were the explanations given for the reduction in prices.

Our Health Bill. -- Sir Auckland Geddes, speaking in London, referred to the physical incapacity of a large section of the manhood of the nation as revealed by the medical examinations carried out during the past four years. The health of the country was bad, and it would take more than a generation to put it right.

Less Sugar for Jam. -- Licences granted to Dec. 31 for sugar for jam will be reduced by 25 per cent., as stocks are low owing to the use of tonnage for war purposes. That notification by the Sugar Commission caused consternation in jam manufacturing circles. It is not unlikely that the reduction will have serious effects on the rationing scheme.

Death of Irish Countess. -- The death occurred, at Kilruddery, Bray, of the Countess of Meath. She had been in failing health for some time past. The Countess, who was the Lady Mary Jane Maitland, daughter of the 11th Earl of Lauderdale, was married to toe 12th Earl of Meath in 1868, and there were four sons and two daughters of the marriage. She was of a charitable disposition, and performed good works unostentatiously.

No Permits During the Election. -- As soon as the date of a General Election is announced, Mr. Shortt told Mr. Dillon in Parliament, the Government will suspend the regulation requiring permits from the police for public meetings and processions, but the prohibition with regard to the wearing of military uniform and seditious speeches will remain. The putting into force of the Order again after the election would be a matter for further consideration.

Flax Grading. -- We are officially informed by the Administrator of the Flax Supplies Committee, Whitehall Buildings, Ann Street, Belfast, that 59.50 per cent, of the 1918 flax crop purchased by the committee up to and including 31st October, 1918, has been graded in the four highest grades, and that the balance -- namely, 40.50 per cant. -- has been graded in grades 5, 6, and lower.

Labour and Government. -- A resolution calling the Labour Ministers out of the Government will be proposed at the Labour Party's Flecton Convention on the 14th inst. When Labour members joined the first Coalition Government in June, 1915, they did so on the understanding that the Labour Party acquiesced in the political truce for the duration of the war. It is contended by Labour that the finish of the fighting terminates the truce.

A Miracle. -- Mr. G. H. Roberts, Minister of Labour, addressing Belgian munition workers in a London area, said the creation of the British Army organised for the conduct of the war was one of the miracles of the world. We only undertook to contribute a small army of 180,000 men; but Great Britain and the British Empire had subscribed 8 millions of men to the fighting forces.

Losses on Convoy System. -- Up to October 26 the number of Atlantic convoys was 566 for 8,646 merchant ships, and the losses only amounted to 77. In the same period the outward sailings were 7,110, and of the 508 convoys the losses were only 45. Of the total 85,772 merchant ships the convoy losses were 433. The world's daily average loss of shipping in the second quarter, 1917, was 10.43 of a gross tonnage of 23,550, and this was reduced in the third quarter to 2.81 (7,813 tons).

Bann Drainage. -- Mr. Shortt, Chief Secretary, replying to a deputation at Portadown, said that owing to labour shortage, &c., the Treasury, he believed, would not sanction work in connection with the proposed drainage of the river Bann in the immediate future. It was stated that 29,000 acres of land were liable to flooding, and that a sum of £220,000 would be required for an effective scheme of drainage.

Representation of East Down. -- I hear the name of Sir Lynden Macassy mentioned in connection with the East Down Parliamentary Division (says a London correspondent). It will be remembered that this gentleman fought South Down on behalf of the Unionists eight years ago. He has since the war began been continuously engaged in important work for the nation, and he has four brothers in our fighting force®.

Butter Prices. -- The maximum price obtainable for a producer in Great Britain for butter sold in bulk to the Ministry of Food was 240s 3d per cwt., Major Astor stated in Parliament, while the price paid by the Ministry of Food for Irish butter in bulk is 245s f.o.r. The Ministry released ail Government butter, including Irish, purchased by it at a uniform rate which enabled it to be sold at 2s 6d a lb. retail, including cost of distribution and the retailer's margin of profit.

Death of Mr. W. Calwell. -- The death occurred at his residence, Spafield, Holywood, of Mr. Walter Calwell, who had been for a period of over sixty years connected with the Brookfield Linen Company. He entered the firm's employment as boy, and was manager of the white linen department at the time of his decease. Mr. Calwell was a strong Unionist, and an elder of the Bangor Road Presbyterian Church, Holywood, while for years he was connected with the Holywood Urban Council.

Heavy Rains and Flooding. -- Abnormally heavy rains fell generally in Ireland on Friday and Saturday morning, causing serious flooding in many places. In Belfast street-gulleys were choked by dead leaves, and the river overflowed, holding up the tramway services for some time, and impeding pedestrian traffic. Portions of Newry were rendered unapproachable owing to floods, and occupants of some houses were driven to the upper portions of their residences, bread being handed in through the upper windows.

Belfast's New Knight. -- At the meeting of the Belfast Corporation, the Lord Mayor (Sir James Johnston) moved a resolution conveying the Congratulations of the Council to the City Chamberlain (Sir Frederick Moneypenny, M.V.O.) on the honour of Knighthood conferred upon him by the Lord Lieutenant. The High Sheriff (Councillor Gaffikin), Sir Crawford M'Cullagh (ex-Lord Mayor), Alderman W. F. Coates, and Councillor J. H. Stirling also joined in the congratulations, and the resolution was passed by acclamation.

Sir E. Carson and Belfast Cathedral. -- Right Rev. Dr. D'Arcy stated at the Down and Connor and Dromore Synod that it had been suggested to him by Sir Edward Carson that they should connect in some special way the building of the next section of Belfast Cathedral as a monument or memorial to their heroes who had fallen on active service. It was intended to erect the chancel and one transept at a cost of £30,000, of which one half was in hands. More school accommodation was necessary, and he advocated a local educational rate.

War Prisoners. -- The House of Lords had a discussion on the question of prisoners of war. Lord Newton claimed that he had done his best for the benefit of British prisoners under difficult conditions. It was extraordinary, he said, that when people were clamouring for reprisals of some kind no one suggested that German prisoners should be made to do the same kind of work that British prisoners had to do in Germany. The opposition to the employment of German prisoners about mines arose from the miners' representatives, but he hoped the officials would abandon their present attitude.

Irish Flour Shortage. -- Owing to shortage, due largely to the non-delivery of flour through strikes, the Belfast Food Control Committee have made representations to the Food Control Committee to have 60 per cent. of the floor milled locally distributed entirely within the city among bakers and factors, to have increased quantities of controlled flour released from England, and the embargo from Scotland removed. Limerick Corporation calls on the Food Controller to have the flour held up distributed to employers baking bread for the citizens, and to take over the idle bakeries.

Bishop on Conscription. -- Right Rev. Dr. Day, addressing the Clogher Diocesan Synod in Clones, said that Ireland had been denied the privilege of compulsory service as a national necessity, and by the aid largely, it is believed, of German gold and propaganda, sedition had been fomented, and the majority of the Irish people had enrolled themselves under a rebel organisation, whose aim was the establishment of an Irish Republic hostile to England, and probably friendly to Germany. The Hierarchy of the Roman Church had lent their great influence against conscription, and the Government acknowledged itself powerless to enforce it in consequence. In reference to the possible League of Churches after the war, he said they could have no union with Rome.


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The Witness - Friday, 15 November 1918

Roll of Honour

M'CLURE -- Oct. 23, killed in action, Hugh Cecil M'Clure, Lieut. Royal Garrison Artillery, aged 22 years.

M'CLURE -- Oct. 29, died in London, of pneumonia, when on leave after three years' service in France, John Richard Smyth M'Clure (Jack), Captain, Royal Engineers, aged 26 years, youngest and third son of Rev. J. J. M'Clure, D.D., and Mrs. M'Clure, Cape Town.


BROWN -- Nov. 8, at Mount Randal, Belfast, the residence of her father, Sir William Crawford, Mary, loved wife of Robert Brown, Donaghmore, Tyrone, from pneumonia, following influenza. Funeral strictly private.

M'CULLAGH -- Nov. 10, 1918, at The Friends' School, Lisburn, Emma Jeannie, second daughter of Robert M'Cullagh, Denahorra, Markethill. Funeral private.

STUART -- Nov. 9, at 54, Brookvale Avenue, Belfast, Sarah Jane Stuart, widow of the late Rev. Joseph Crawford Stuart, Clare, Co. Armagh, and daughter of the late Rev. Robert Fleming, Cavan, aged 74 years. Interred in Culnady Presbyterian Churchyard.

BARNES -- Nov. 7, at Waringstown (suddenly, from pneumonia), Samuel, eldest surviving son of John Barnes.

BURCH -- Nov. 11, at 99, Movilla Street, Newtownards, Susannah Byers Cortes, dearly-beloved wife of James Burch.

FORSYTHE -- Nov. 11, at Donard Villa, Whitehead, Isabella Forsythe.

HANNA -- Nov. 11, at Bangor Demesne, Jane, widow of the date David Hanna.

JOHNSTON -- At Cincinnati, U.S.A., William Robert, second son of the late Rev. John Johnston, Methodist minister, and brother of Mrs. Wm. Fisher, Maghera, Dundrum, Co. Down.

LYTLE -- Nov. 8, at the residence of her brother, 4, Queen's Parade, Bangor, Maggie, second daughter of the late John Lytle, Knock.

MOORE -- At 5, Downshire Road, Bangor, Samuel A. Moore.

M'ALLISTER -- Nov. 7, at 2, Bay View, Bay Road, Larne Harbour, Elizabeth, the dearly-beloved wife of Robert M'Allister.

WILSON -- Nov. 7, at her father's residence, Loughview House, Magheramorne, Sarah Jane (Sadie), dearly-beloved daughter of Robert and Mary Jane Wilson.

WILSON -- Oct. 31, 1918, at Trinaltinagh, Kilrea, of pneumonia, Thomas Wilson, second son of Thomas S. Wilson, aged 28 years.


MITCHELL -- We hereby return our sincere thanks to the friends who kindly expressed their sympathy with us in our recent bereavement. ISAAC and Mrs. MITCHELL. 3, Strangemore Terrace, Belfast, Nov., 1918.




Bolshevists Sent Home. -- The Swiss Government has broken with the Bolshevist mission there on account of their propaganda, and have asked the mission to leave Berne without delay.

Black Pudding Price Fixed. -- The Food Controller prescribes the maximum retail price for blood sausages and black puddings, Whether containing any pig production or not, at the rate of 1s per lb.

Help for Serbia. -- Louis Mitrovitch, the Serbian Consul-General in Valparaiso, who is a member of the London firm of Pavle Mitrovitch, has given his country property, worth about £10,000, to be raffled.

Gave £6,000,000 in Charity. -- The late Mrs. Russell Sage, America's wealthiest woman, who inherited £15,000,000 on her husband's death, is said to have given £6,000,000 to charity during the last twelve years.

Woman Heads the Poll. -- Miss K. Edmonds defeated Mr. Frank Privett, Chairman of the Unionist Association, by 661 votes in the municipal poll at Portsmouth. Only 2,700 debtors out of over 6,000 voted.

Aerial Post to Dublin. -- The Parliamentary Correspondent of the "Daily Chronicle" says -- The Postmaster-General (Mr. Illingworth) is developing a scheme for the delivery and despatch of letters between London, Dublin, and Edinburgh by aeroplane.

Passenger Traffic to Sweden. -- Lloyd's announces that regular passenger traffic between Sweden and England is to be resumed, and steamers are now being fitted out for this purpose. Traffic between Sweden and Ireland, which has been suspended for several years, will soon again begin.

No More Standard Ships. -- Lord Pirrie, Director of Ship Construction, has stopped building standard ships, except where keels are laid. The shipbuilding yards are to he opened for private work. The Government retains control of the allocation of labour and material, including engines.

£47,000,000 Subsidies for England. -- Mr. Kellaway, answering Mr. Holt in the House of Commons, stated that it was estimated in July last that subsidies amounting to £47,000,000 had been paid to manufacturers of iron and steel in Great Britain to compensate them for the increased cost of production.

White Bread Coming. -- It is stated that very soon the public will be able to purchase white bread once more. The submarine menace is past, there is a large amount of grain in the United Kingdom, and by the time stocks are falling supplies will be coming regularly from overseas. There will also be offal available for pig-feeding.

Ulster Unionist Council. -- A meeting of the Ulster Unionist Council will be held in the Old Town Hall to-day, in view of a near approach of a General Election, and among the subjects to be considered will be that of Home Rule. Sir Edward Carson will preside, and it is expected will make an important pronouncement.

British Interests in Constantinople. -- Vice Admiral the Hon. Sir Somerset Gough Calthorpe has been appointed High Commissioner, and Rear-Admiral R. Webb, assistant at Constantinople to maintain contact with the Turkish Government during the transitional period and protect British interests. Mr. T. B. Hohler will act as chief political officer.

£9,450 for a Bull. -- At a sale near Hereford of pedigree Hereford cattle, 84 animals belonging to Mr. Hayter made 42,602 guineas -- an average of £532 10s 6d. A four-year-old stock bull sold for £9,450, which beats all "records." A cow made 2,000 guineas, another 1,700 guineas, two others 1,200 guineas and 1,150 guineas, and two others 1,000 guineas, and a yearling bull 1,200 guineas.

Output of Beer and Spirits. -- It is stated arrangements are being made to increase the output of beer and spirits, though the Government control of both trades will continue for a long time, and the lack of mature spirits will lead to some modification of the three years' compulsory bonding. In the quantities of beer and spirits brewed and distilled there will likely be no great increase for two years.

Increased War Bonus. -- The award of the Arbitration Board for Government employees whose remuneration does not exceed £3 a week is that they shall get increases which will bring the total war bonus to 23s a week for men of 21 and upwards, of 17s for those under 21 and over 18; and 11s for those under 18; and in the case of women 15s for those of 18 and over, and 11s 6d for those under 18 years.

Record New York Benefit. Over £9,000 was raised by a New York concert, at which Mr. John MacCormack, the Irish tenor, sang, for the benefit of the 165th Infantry (the Irish 69th). The attendance was about 7,000; £400 was paid for a box; and, while the highest price asked for a seat was £1, numerous friends contributed £100 a pair. Judge Howling said the result was a record for benefit performances.

Lord French's Forecast. -- Lord Midleton, speaking at Coventry, said the country had come to the last phase of hostilities, and what Lord French said to him four years ago showed his prevision. He said, "We can win this campaign -- we can invade Germany -- but it will take nearer seven years than one. You will have conscription, and the Battle will have to be fought not by the British army, but by the British people.

Sheriff Inquiry Committee. -- The Lord Lieutenant has appointed Rt. Hon. T. L. O'Shaughnessy, Recorder of Dublin (chairman) G. Fottrell, Clerk of the Crown and Peace; M. F. Headlam, Treasury Remembrancer; W. V. Seddall, President of the Incorporated Law Society, and R. K. Gamble, B.L., as a Committee to report on the duties, remuneration, and system of appointment of Under-Sheriffs and their appointment of bailiffs.

Vote of Credit. -- In the House of Commons the Chancellor of the Exchequer moved a Vote of Credit for £700,000,000, a sum which was not likely to be spent, but which it was not possible for the present to reduce. He mentioned that the expenditure for the year showed a daily saving compared with the Budget Estimate of £298,000. Dr. Addison said that there had been some very promising suggestions made with regard to Ireland in connection with development of resources. Demobilisation expenses are to come out of the Vote, and the diminishing of expenditure on war material is to be begun at once. From July 14 to October 19 the actual daily expenditure was £6,398,000 -- a saving of £688,000 a day on the estimate.

New Magistrate. -- Mr. Ernest P. Smyth, of Gallony, near Strabane, has been appointed a justice of the peace for County Tyrone, and will adjudicate at Strabane Petty Sessions.

Enormous Profits. -- The net profits of J. & P. Coats are £3,171,795, and the directors have allocated £100,000 to marine and fire underwriting, carrying forward over £2,250,000. The dividend is 30 per cent.

Ulster Winter Assizes. -- These assizes will be opened at Belfast on Tuesday, the 3rd December, at eleven o'clock. The judge will be the Right Honourable Mr. Justice Gordon, and the registrar Mr. Francis Kennedy.

Herr Ballin Dead. -- It is announced from Hamburg that Albert Ballin, managing director Hamburg-America Line) died there suddenly on Saturday, aged 62. A later message states that he committed suicide on learning the armistice terms.

New English Lord of Appeal. -- Sir Geo. Cave, Home Secretary, has accepted the position of a Lord of Appeal. He has represented the Kingstown Division of Surrey as a Unionist since 1906. Sir George has been created a Viscount.

Arms Embargo for Ireland. -- The Commander of the Forces in Ireland has issued a notification that the Order prohibiting the carrying of firearms in Ireland, except under permit, includes not only military arms, but all kinds of firearms, including shot guns, fowling pieces, and revolvers.

No Place for Undying Hatreds. -- Cardinal Bourne, in an interview in the London "Observer," dealing with the peace problem, quotes Cardinal Mercier as saying that the task before the Allied nations is to mingle Christian justice with charity, and adds that they must be prepared to give a place in the world's development even to their enemies, as there should be no place for undying hatreds.

Christmas Parcels for the Troops. -- The Secretary of the War Office notifies that Christmas parcels for the troops in France and Italy, which it is desired to send through the Military Forwarding Officer, Southampton Docks, should be despatched not later than 1st December and 20th November respectively. If they are despatched later their delivery by Christmas Day will not be probable. Parcels must weigh over 11lbs. and under 36lbs.

Marquis Conyngham Dead. -- Captain the Marquis Conyngham, South Irish Horse, A.D.C. to Sir John Maxwell, died at York from pneumonia. Born in 1883, he succeeded his father in 1897, and was unmarried. The late Marquis was at one period the largest landowner in Ireland, holding over 163,000 acres. The family seat is at Slane, Co. Meath, and there are three residences in Co. Donegal. He is succeeded by his brother, Lord Frederick.

England and the United States. -- Speaking in London, at a dinner given by Lord Burnham to American journalists, Mr. Churchill said they had to be thankful that England and the United States had come together. They never could have done so in the ordinary days of peace. Whether it was an association or an alliance, at any rate it was certainly a comradeship begun in a common cause and pursued in high end unchangeable ideals.

No Cessation of War Industry. -- Mr. Churchill, speaking at the Ministry of Munitions, said that nearly two-thirds, or sixty per cent., of the persons employed in munitions industries were at work on industries which they would be, in ordinary circumstances, working on for peace purposes. In all industries there was a great pent-up demand only requiring liberation, and the Government's object was to give that liberation as soon as possible, and release galling State controls.

Food Controller and the Farmers. -- In the course of a letter to the Ulster Farmers' Union, Mr. J. R. Clynes, Food Controller, states -- "I would like to see food production carried on upon lines which will afford good remuneration and better treatment for those who give their labour in a necessary branch of arduous toil, and who in the past have not been remunerated or treated as they ought to be. Better treatment and pay for those who have to invest both their labour and their capital in the great business of food production will come."

Secondary Teachers. -- At a meeting of the Ulster Provincial Council of the Association of Secondary Teachers, six members were elected to represent Ulster on the Executive Council of the Association. The meeting showed its appreciation of the unflagging interest of Miss Steele, Victoria College, Belfast, in educational affairs, by entrusting to her the bringing before the Committee on Intermediate Education of the views of the delegates on various professional matters. The number of members of the Ulster branches of the association continues to increase.

Jungle Tribes Mission. -- At a meeting of committee, held in Church House -- Mr. Hamilton M'Cleary, J.P>, in the chair -- interesting letters were read from three of the missionaries, which told of progress in the work. Mr. Lewis is proceeding with the erection of a new outstation in Parewa, where he baptised fifty-five persons in the early part of the year, and requests financial help. Nineteen others have lately been baptised from three different villages. Earnest prayer is asked for inquirers. Mr. M'Adam presented an encouraging report re congregations, meetings, and Sabbath schools addressed. Rev. Dr. Davey closed the meeting by pronouncing the benediction.

Ulster Aeroplane Disaster. -- A most distressing aeroplane accident occurred at Dromore, County Tyrone, as the result of which three airmen lost their lives and one was seriously injured. It appears that three aeroplanes left Galway for Omagh, and although the sky was misty all went well until outside Dromore. Two of the planes, one manned by Lieutenant James M. Wilson and Corporal Bradshaw, and the other by Lieutenant Booth and Air-Mechanic Gordie, by some, at present unexplained means, collided and crashed to earth in the townland of Lisaneden. Lieutenant Wilson's machine fell in flames, and he and his companion were instantly killed, their bodies being burned almost beyond recognition.

Transport Problems. -- The first report of the Transport Committee contains the report of the Irish Sub-Committee (Sir A. Shirley Benn, chairman), which investigated questions bearing on transport facilities offered by ports and canals in this country. Apart from recommendations for harbour development, the sub-committee recommend further investigation of the question of a transatlantic terminal port in Ireland, and, in this connection, propose the provision of deep-water piers at Queenstown and at a North of Ireland port, from which places improved fast train services for passengers might be established and air services for express mails might be found feasible. A new Government Harbour Department is recommended, with Imperial control of all navigable waters, local authorities to obtain loans for harbour improvements and equipment.

Labour and Home Rule. -- A report which the Executive of the Labour Party will present to an Emergency Conference in London contains a demand for the immediate application to Ireland of the fullest possible measure of Home Rule.

Coal Economy Must Continue. -- The available coal resources, Mr. Wardle announces, will not permit of any relaxation in the effort to secure economy, both by voluntary co-operation of consumers and by the efforts of the Household Fuel and Lighting Orders.

Gratitude Week. -- To commemorate the end of the war, the week beginning Monday, December 9, is to be held as "Gratitude Week" when the country is to be asked to make a to secure the £3,000,000 necessary for the King's Fund for Disabled Soldiers.

Land for Soldiers and Sailors. -- It has been found impossible, Mr Bonar Law told Mr. Dillon in Parliament, to proceed with and carry the Irish Land (Provision for Sailors and Soldiers) Bill this Session, but it would be one of the first things undertaken next session.

Explosions in Liverpool. -- Great damage was caused to property and many persons were injured by two explosions believed to have been caused by sewer gas, in Liverpool. A woman was blown out of bed by the first explosion and on returning to bed was again blown out by the second explosion.

Mr. Barnes Drops Labour. -- "The Times" understands that Mr. Barnes, Labour member of the War Cabinet, has definitely severed his connection with the Labour Party. His decision has been chiefly influenced by the adoption of another Labour candidate, Mr. John Maclean, for Mr. Barnes' new constituency.

Private Work in Shipyards. -- The Shipping Controller announces that arrangements have been made to enable shipbuilders to resume private work, but the ships to be laid down must, for the present, be of a type approved by the Ministry of Shipping, and there must be no interference with the execution of Government contracts in hand. A Government certificate will still be required in each case before work is begun.

Pledges to Labour. -- The Prime Minister, addressing a meeting of representatives of employers' associations and trade unions in the principal industries of the country in London, said the Government wished it to be fully understood that the pledges given to the trade unions in March, 1916, would be carried out. It was the policy of the Government that during the immediate transition period the present level of wages, due to the high cost of living, should be maintained for at any rate a period of six months.

Pope and Poland. -- In an apostolic letter to the Archbishop of Warsaw, who is about to be created a Cardinal, the Pope says that after centuries of oppression Poland was still as alive as ever, and in darkest days as well as in the zenith of her glory had unfailing attachment to the Catholic Church. Many Popes had protested to all the Powers against her dismemberment, and he thanked God the dawn of her resurrection was finally breaking. He wished all other nationalities once subject to Russia might now decide their own fate, and develop and prosper according to their prospects, ideals, and resources.

The Irish Debate. -- Sir Edward Carson, in a letter to the "Morning Post," says that the four points made clear in the recent Irish debate were Mr. Dillon's declaration that his demands were the same as those of Sinn Fein; his refusal to answer the Solicitor-General's question if the settlement he claimed was in accordance with the Home Rule Act; the inconsistency of the demands (supported by the Asquithians) with the provision® of that Act; and the assumption that the Asquithians will ask for a mandate to compel Ulster to submit to the Sinn Fein programme.



The many friends of the late Rev. Professor Dickey, D.D., of M'Crea Magee College, and Mrs. Dickey, now residing at Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, will learn with deep regret of the death of their elder son, Dr. J. S. R. Dickey, of Oakham, Rutlandshire. Dr. Dickey, who was medical officer to the Rutlandshire Volunteers, was a victim of the influenza epidemic. The younger brother, Major Eric Dickey, who won great distinction with the Aviation Force, is at present home on sick leave from Holland. At the funeral at Oakham, the large and representative attendance reflected the high esteem in which deceased was held in the country. It was his wish that he should be laid to rest where he had worked.


Sergeant Thomas M'Causiand, D.C.M., has recently been killed in action in France. He was the only son of Mrs. M'Causland, Mulloughmore, Seskinore, Omagh. He joined the army as an Ulster Volunteer at the commencement of the war, and was wounded four times. He was a young man of excellent character, and was a member of Seskinore Presbyterian Church; was a regular attendant at the Sabbath school and public worship. The Rev. W. J. M'Askie made an appropriate, reference to the deceased at the service last Sabbath, and expressed the sympathy of the congregation to the bereaved mother and members of her family. This is the fifth member of the congregation (consisting of eighty families), out of a total of twenty-one enlisted in the army, who has given his life a sacrifice on the altar of his country's service, and for the cause of righteousness and freedom.



Origin of Rabbit Foot Charm. -- An explanation of the marvellous and mysterious properties of the rabbit foot as a good luck piece is to be found in the fact that witchcraft regarded the rabbit as a particularly mystical animal. The favourite disguise of the witches of old was to take the form of a rabbit -- a close second was the cat -- and records again and again show convictions and executions of women for the fearful crime of changing themselves into rabbits. A rabbit foot was a potent charm against the evil spells of the witch-rabbit.

Origin of "Tally Ho!" -- In chatting about our Army in Palestine, which in the intervals of business, occupies itself in hunting, shooting, fishing, and other British sports, a writer in "Palestine," the organ of the British Palestine Committee, recalls a very interesting fact. He tells us that "Tally Ho!" is of Crusading origin, being the corruption of Tallu Hone, the Syrian for "Come here." Thus, he comments, in the most unexpected way, a sporting cry brought home by King Richard's men or Prince Edward's men is carried back to the land of its origin by King George's men.

Successful Business. -- "The old idea that business is getting the better of your neighbour is not only 'bad business,' but nonsense," declares Lord Leverhulme in "Pearson's Magazine." "Business is not getting the better of, but doing the best for your neighbour -- and yourself. If business is not mutually profitable, it is mutually destructive. My neighbour's prosperity helps mine, and mine his. When that old pernicious notion if finally exploded the millennium of business will be at hand, the era of universal peace between capital and labour. . . . Labour unrest is a symptom of health -- not of disease. It shows that labour is very much alive -- and kicking."

Why We Hear Heart Beats. -- The cause of the sound of normal heart beats has not been definitely ascertained. There are normally two sounds -- the first, which is called systolic, is dull and somewhat prolonged; it is followed quickly by the second, called diastolic, which is shorter and sharper. A pause follows the second sound. It is supposed that the vibration and closure of the valves between the auricles and ventricles is one of the causes of the first sound; the contraction of the ventricles, or the striking of the heart against the walls of the chest, may be the cause. The second sound is known to be caused by the vibration produced by the closure of the similunar valves.

Health Effect of Food Shortage. -- Since it is the part of wisdom to turn everything, even misfortune, to use, there is considerable interest in what good effects may be had from food shortage. Robert Hutchison points out in the "Medical Journal" that though a reduction in the fat ration of half a pound a week would entail a loss of weight, this loss is not progressive, the individual being able to maintain a lower weight on a diminished diet. This is due to the lessened output of energy required to transport a smaller body weight. A lesser body surface also means a smaller heat loss. The conclusion is reached that there is no reason to suppose that smaller rations means a lowering of health -- probably the reverse is the case.

Arithmetic Teaches Food Economy. -- Novel methods are used in America to impress on the children the need of food economy. Mr. Hoover has now called in arithmetic to his aid, and in a new school book interesting problems, with an individual application, are set out. The method is educationally sound in that it arouses interest; but it is not always easy to tell the effect of the powder in the jam in the case of children. What will Margaret say when she has this problem -- "Margaret wastes two lumps of sugar daily by eating more than she needs. If a lump weighs 1/8oz., how much does she waste a year?' Margaret may deny the major premiss; she may begin experimenting to see how much she needs; she may regard the whole story as an act of deception, and refuse to pass on to the second part of the problem -- "A soldier's ration is 3 1.5oz. of sugar a day. For how long would what Margaret wastes in the year supply the soldier?" The method has its little difficulties.



Editor of "Womans Work."

The death of Mrs. Robert Brown, of Donaghmore, means a very heavy loss not only to her own immediate relatives, but to the whole Presbyterian Church in Ireland. Twenty-eight years ago, Miss Mary Crawford, as she then was, became the editor of "Woman's Work," the magazine of our Women's Foreign Mission Association. It was then a very small affair, popularly known as the "Pink Paper;" but under her able editorship it speedily increased in size and value, until it is now one of the most beautiful missionary magazines published. Once she accepted the editorship she regarded it as a sacred task entrusted to her by her Lord; she threw her whole heart into it, devoting to it much of her time and thought. And as the circulation rapidly increased, it was a great joy to her to know that it was helping to stimulate the interest of our people in the Zenana Mission, and to advance in some small degree the extension of Christ's, kingdom in the heathen world. The circulation of "Woman's Work" had risen to about 30,000 copies; and its subscribers are to be found in such distant places as Australia and the West Indies. Her delightful personality and consecrated life made her a great influence for good, especially among the young. She was seldom absent from any of the committees of the Women's Association, and took the deepest interest in all its affairs; while her husband and she were ever ready in the most generous manner to help on the work. She will be long and widely missed; but if of any one, it may be truly said of her, "She rests from her labours, and her works do follow her."

We cannot do better than append the words that were read by the Rev. Dr. John Irwin, from the pulpit of Windsor Church, the Sabbath after her death:-- I am sure we are all united to-day in profound sorrow for the death of Mrs. Robert Brown, daughter of Sir William and Lady Crawford. The few members still with us who joined this church at its beginning, or shortly afterwards, will remember Miss Mary Crawford as one of its most devoted workers. Only two months ago she returned for a time to our fellowship, and characteristically had resumed Sabbath school and other work here as in the old days. Little did we anticipate that she had come back to find her deathbed in her former home. But Mrs. Brown's services were not merely local. Her zeal in the cause of Foreign Missions was ardent and untiring; and the name of one who for 28 years was the wise and most capable editor of "Woman's Work" is almost a household word throughout the Irish Presbyterian Church. We do not doubt the goodness of the Heavenly Father, who has now called her from earthly labours to His own rest; but as we deeply sympathised with her when recently, through the death of her two sons, she sustained the only great sorrow of a very happy life, so now our sympathy goes out to her parents, her husband, her children, and to all who sorrow for so great a loss. May I venture to add that the best tribute we and other churches can pay to her memory -- especially the women of this and other churches -- will be redoubled efforts on behalf of a cause that was always so close to her heart.



The announcement of the death of Professor Cyril C. Stronge, M.A., who held the Chair of Modern Languages in M'Crea Magee College, Derry, will be received with feelings of deep regret by his many friends both in the North of Ireland and in Dublin, in the neighbourhood of which he was born. He was the youngest son of Mr. Samuel E. Stronge, M.A., of Dromartin Castle, Dundrum, one of the head inspectors of National education, and a nephew of Mr. J. R. Moorhead, LL. B., Crown Solicitor, Belfast. He graduated M.A. in Trinity College, and afterwards became a teacher in one of the higher class schools in England. The Chair of Modern Languages was founded in 1908, and he was appointed its first occupant, and held it down to his death. He took an active part in bringing about the existing relations between the Derry College and Dublin University. When the great war commenced, which has convulsed Europe and the world for more than four years, Mr. Stronge eagerly proffered his services to the State, but, though he thrice submitted himself lor medical examination at different times, he was not accepted on the ground of his health, and was compelled, through no fault of his own, to continue in the quiet discharge of his duties at the college. At the beginning of the present session he was unanimously selected as Smyth Lecturer, and had announced as his subject "Alsace Lorraine Between the Wars." If these lectures had been delivered they would have been marked by that erudition research, and scholarly ability which characterised all his work. No one who was brought into close contact with him could fail to note and appreciate his high ideal of life, and the conscientiousness and thoroughness which marked all his work. His colleagues could always rely upon his sound judgment. While somewhat retiring in manner, he yet had the rare gift of inspiring friendship, and the deep sympathy of a large circle of acquaintances and friends will go out to his widow and mother, who mourn the loss of one cut off in the very prime of life and usefulness.

The funeral to the City Cemetery was attended by the office-bearers of Faculty and other Professors of M'Crea Magee College. The Dean of Derry officiated.



On 23rd October last, Lieutenant Hugh Cecil M'Clure, R.G.A., aged 22 years, was killed in action, and six days later his brother, Captain John Richard Smyth M'Clure, R.E., aged 26 years, died in London of pneumonia when on leave, after three years' service in France. These gallant young officers were the youngest and third sons of Rev. J. J. M'Clure, D.D., and Mrs. M'Clure, of Cape Town, and formerly of Duneane, Randalstown, and were nearly related to Miss M'Clure, of Dhu Varren, Portrush. Captain John M'Clure, in the early stages of the war, served in German South West Africa, and came to England in October, 1915. He obtained a degree in engineering, and, joining the Royal Engineers, was sent to France. He was severely wounded in March, 1916, and in May, 1918, was mentioned in despatches. Lieut. Cecil M'Clure came to England in October, 1916, from South Africa, and soon afterwards received his commission. Dr. M'Clure's third boy, Sam, who also served in German Africa, joined the flying corps in England in October, 1915, and, after service in France, was invalided home. He was almost twelve months instructor in flying, and attained the rank of major. He now holds an important post in South Africa.


Late Mr. Thomas A. Clapham. -- The funeral of Mr. Thomas Clapham took place from his residence, Drinagh, Kensington Road, Knock, the place of interment being Newtownbreda Churchyard. The chief mourners were Messrs. W. E. Clapham (brother), O. Pollard, W. H. Kay, and Joseph Reid. Following the chief mourners were the staff of the City of Liverpool Hide Company, of which deceased was the manager for Ireland, and the Select Vestry of St. Columba's, Knock, of which he was an ardent member; a large representation of the Belfast Rotary Club and Sailors' and Soldiers' Service Club. The funeral arrangements were carried out by Messrs. Melville & Co., Ltd., under the personal supervision of Mr. Robert M'Clure.


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