The Witness - Friday, 6 December 1918


ARNOLD--PALMER -- Nov. 27, at Killead Presbyterian Church, by Rev. J. A. Canning, LL.B., Hans, second, son of the late Carlisle Arnold and Mrs. Arnold, to Margaret E. (Meg), younger daughter of the late Wm. Palmer and Mrs. Palmer, both of Crumlin.


GILLESPIE -- Nov. 29, at 58, Dufferin Avenue, Bangor, James Gillespie, formerly of Corcreeny, Lurgan. Interred in First Lurgan Presbyterian Church Burying-ground on Monday, the 2nd December.

LEGATE -- Nov. 29, 1918, at his residence, Scarva Street, Banbridge, Alexander Legate. Interred in Family Burying-ground, Scarva Street Presbyterian Churchyard, on Monday, 2nd December.

WOODS -- Dec. 2, at 14, Eglantine Avenue, Samuel, the dearly-beloved husband of Annie Woods. Funeral private. Deeply regretted.

BROWN -- Nov. 28 (suddenly), at Ballykeel, Lougherene, Ballynahinch, David Brown.

BURNETT -- Nov. 21, 1918 (of pneumonia), in Palestine, Corporal Campbell Burnett, Despatch Rider, G.H.2 Egyptian Expeditionary Force, aged 22 years, son of Hugh Burnett, Newry Street, Banbridge.

DOUGLAS -- Dec. 1, at Ravarnette, Lisburn, Agnes, beloved wife of James Douglas.

GUY -- Nov. 30, 1918, Margaret Sproule Guy, the dearly-loved wife of F. A Guy, J.P., Drumlish House, Dromore, County Tyrone.

HAM -- Dec. 1, at 13, Castlereagh Street (from pneumonia), Sidney, dearly-beloved husband of Leah Ham.

HERDMAN -- Nov. 29, at the Post Office, Dundrod, Sarah Jane Herdman.

MACARTNEY -- Nov. 29, at Cabra, Larchfield, Lisburn, Wm. Macartney.

MINNIS -- Nov. 30, at his residence, Roughfort, Mallusk (of pneumonia), Francis Minnis, beloved husband of Agnes Minnis.

MOORE -- Nov. 30, at Meeting-house, Cairncastle, Thomas James, youngest son of James and Mary Moore.

M'FARLAND -- Dec. 3, at her residence, 19, Atlantic Avenue, Belfast, Hessie M'Farland, widow of the late Thomas M'Farland, Balteagh, Limavady.

M'KINNEY -- Nov. 25, 1918 (of pneumonia), at her father's residence, Tatnagilta, Cookstown, Martha, youngest daughter of William M'Kinney.

M'REYNOLDS -- At her mother's residence, Railway Road, Coleraine, Mary Reid, the beloved daughter of Mrs. M'Reynolds.

STEWART -- Nov. 30, at 1, Olive Terrace, Fountain Hill, Londonderry, Wm. Stewart (formerly of Midland Railway).

WALLACE -- Nov. 29, at his residence, Ballyferris, Ballywalter, John Wallace.




Air Force Casualties. -- The total number of casualties to officers and men of the Royal Air Force from April 1 last (the date of the amalgamation of the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Flying Corps) to November 11 was 7,598. Of that total 1,551 officers and 1,129 other ranks were killed.

Etonians War Service. -- During the war 5,610 Etonians have been on active service, of whom 722 were killed in action, 17 died of wounds and 135 from other causes, whilst 1,068 were wounded. Amongst the numerous honours gained were 13 V.C., 8 D.S.O. and one bar, 407 D.S.O., 31 bars and one second bar, 554 Military Crosses, with 21 bars and 3 second bars, 1 Albert Medal.

Kaiser to be Tried. -- Sir F. E. Smith, at Wimborne, said the Government intended to punish without distinction all who had broken every law, human and Divine. The Kaiser claimed that his will was supreme in Germany. Then his was the chief responsibility, so far as they could ensure it, that he should be given the opportunity of answering charges which would be preferred against him.

Drink Traffic. -- Lord d'Abernon, head of the Central Control Board regulating the liquor traffic, delivered an address at the Society of Arts on "Rival Theories of the Causes of Drunkenness." Before the war, he observed, conditions in the licensed trade gave no cause for satisfaction either to the State or to the public. The conditions of life and work among the retail section were terrible in the extreme.

Family Stricken with Typhus. -- Mr. M'Rory said at Derry Guardians that all the members of a family in Inch (Donegal) district were down with typhus, and were without food or milk in the house. The father could not get a coffin for a dead child. A neighbour left food near the house. It was ordered that the patients be removed to hospital.

Viceroy's New Council. -- The Lord Lieutenant has appointed the following gentlemen to act as am Advisory Council -- The Earl of Dunraven, Marquis of Londonderry, Earl of Granard, Right Hon. Walter Kavanagh, Sir Thos. Stafford, Sir Stanley Harrington, and Mr. Frank Brooke. "It is understood," says the Dublin correspondent of "The Times," "that the new Advisory Council has been appointed with the object of enabling the Lord Lieutenant to obtain' the views of leading men from all parts of the Country on matters affecting Ireland."

Would Hang the Kaiser. -- Mr. Geo. Barnes, of the War Cabinet, in an election speech, said he was for hanging the Kaiser. There had been talk of prosecuting the submarine commanders, the murderers of Captain Fryatt and other culprits. He wanted to start at the top. They had inside knowledge that the Kaiser presided at meetings not a month before we were involved in war, at which war was actually decided upon, and it was monstrous that the greatest criminal, coward, culprit, and murderer in history should escape just punishment for his crime.

New North Atlantic Steamers. -- It is officially announced that three large steamers, intended for the North Atlantic passenger service, were recently completed by Messrs. Harland & Wolff (Limited), Belfast. The Vedic, built for the White Star Line, and the Rimouski for the Dominion Line, are sister ships of nearly 10,000 tons register, and besides being large cargo carriers are designed primarily for a third-class passenger business. The third vessel, the Regina, built for the Dominion Line, is a large triple screw steamer, 16,314 tons, which, while carrying a large cargo, is intended for cabin and third-class passengers.

Military Wedding at Ballyalbany. -- The marriage was solemnised on 20th November, in Ballyalbany Presbyterian Church, of Miss Kathleen Mary Swan, youngest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Swan, The Bungalow, Monaghan, and Captain John P. Castles, D.C.M., 8th (Irish) K.L.R. There was a large attendance of friends and well-wishers, and the ceremony was performed by the Rev. J. A. Cargin, B.A., minister of Ballyalbany. The bride was attended by Miss Angliker (Fir Dene, Belfast) as bridesmaid, and the bridegroom was accompanied by Lieutenant D. R. Pavia, South Wales Border Regiment, as best man.

Belfast Rotary Club. -- At the seventh annual general meeting of the Belfast Rotary Club, it was reported that during the year subscriptions amounting to 543 9s 9d had been paid direct through the club to war and other charities. The following officers and committee were elected for the year 1918-19:-- President, Mr. Hugh Boyd, C.A.; vice-president, Mr. J. S. Garrett; hon. treasurer, Mr. James F. Newel; hon. secretary, Mr. W. G. Gabbey. Committee -- Messrs. F. Walker, W. H. Alexander, A. S. Davidson, W. Sweeney, J. M. Colton, R. R. Bowman, E. Dempster, and W. Malcolm, Mr. E. Dempster was re-elected hop. treasurer of the weekly Collection Fund, and Mr. W. H Alexander was re-elected assistant Editor of the "Rotary Wheel."

America's war cost. -- Mr. Burke, Treasurer the United States', reports to Mr. M'Adoo that the Army cost 1,130,000,000, the Navy 275,000,000 the Civil Government 305,000,000 during the year ending June 30 last.

The "Curfew" in Vienna. -- No fighting permitted now in Vienna in any shops except those selling food. Restaurants and cafes are permitted to have a single gas-jet or a single small electric light for each six persons present.

Teachers' War Bonus. -- Mr. A. Bonaparte Wyse, secretary of the Committee of National Education, writes that the Commissioners understand the recent award of the Arbitration and Conciliation Board to mean that all recognised teachers in convent National schools paid by capitation will be entitled to receive from July 1 last a war bonus of 26 a year.

From Trench to Pulpit. -- Many soldiers, sailors and airmen are offering themselves for the ministry, said Lord Brassey, chairman of the Finance Committee of the Church of England Central Fund. It is estimated that 100 will cover the training of an ex-service man, and that 200,000 a year will be needed for the next three years.

Soldier-Prince Killed. -- Captain Prince Antoine d'Orleans and Braganza, M.C., A.D.C., Royal Canadian Dragoons, died at Edmonttee Military Hospital from injuries sustained in a flying accident. He was journeying by aeroplane from France to London with despatches, when, owing to fog, the pilot was obliged to make a forced landing at Old Southgate and the machine collided with a cottage. The pilot was killed.

Social Reform. -- Very Rev. Dr. Drummond, Moderator of the United Free Church Assembly, addressed the members of the Glasgow United Free Church Office-bearers' Union on "The Office-bearer in Social and Industrial Reform." He believed that office-bearers who held different opinions on social and industrial problems or who represented interests such as those of capital and labour would find in their Church Courts a favourable atmosphere for the discussion of these problems.

Catholic Appeal to Mr. Wilson. -- President Wilson has, it is stated, been petitioned by the Catholic clergy of San Francisco diocese, numbering several hundreds, Archbishop Hanna being the leading signatory, to support the claims of Ireland for consideration as an independent nation. The appeal has been personally presented to the President at Washington by Senator Phelan, a former Mayor of San Francisco, who is of Irish descent. It asks Mr. Wilson to act as champion of the claim of a free Ireland on the same basis as Poland and Siberia, and it is added that he is considering the matter.

Mr. Shortt and Ireland. -- Mr. Edward Shortt, Chief Secretary for Ireland, at Newcastle, said that during reconstruction they would endeavour to put Ireland in a state of financial stability. If Irishmen, instead of living in the past century, would come down and meet each other in business they would find that Connaught men and Ulster men were very much alike. He was elected as a Home Ruler, but if he had gone to Ireland as a Unionist he would be a Home Ruler by now. He held the opinion that President Wilson would decline to interfere with regard to settling the Irish question.

Future of Palestine. -- Mr. Nahum Sokolow, accompanied by his secretaries, has arrived in Paris, where he will remain until after the Peace Conference. With the approval of the British and French Governments he will open there a Zionist Bureau for the purpose of keeping the various Peace delegations informed about Jewish national aspirations. Dr. C. Weizmann, head of the Zionist Commission to Palestine, will be leaving for Paris in a few days. When the question of the future of Palestine comes up for discussion at the Peace Conference, the Zionist leaders will have an opportunity of submitting before it the Jewish claims to the country.

Military Funeral in Belfast. -- Military honours were accorded the funeral of Lieutenant W. H. Martin, Shropshire Light Infantry, son of the late Mr. and Mrs. Robert Martin, of Montana, Glandore Avenue, Belfast. The remains were removed from Victoria Barracks, where deceased had succumbed to influenza, and were conveyed to Hillsborough Churchyard, the firing party accompanying the cortege to the Balmoral tramway terminus. A service was conducted in St. Enoch's Presbyterian Church by Rev. John Pollock and Rev. A. Wylie Blue, the latter also officiating at the graveside. Messrs. Melville & Co., Ltd., carried out the funeral arrangements.

Flax Scutchers' Wages. -- A meeting of the Ulster Flax Scutchers' Trade Union Society was held in the Town Hall, Coleraine, when a lengthened discussion took place on the wages fixed by the Arbitration Court. The speakers pointed out that scutchers were only receiving 1s 7d per stone for scutching, while the millowners received 4s 10½d. A resolution was adopted that the Department and Flax Supply Committee be given to the 9th December to consider the matter, and if they had not arrived a decision by that time that the Secretary convene a meeting of the representatives of the different branches of the scutchers' union in Ulster to consider what action should be taken.



A Magnificent Record.

In a tribute to the Ulster Division from the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Corps of the Second Army, of which it formed a unit in the closing stages of the war, he says:-- "The 36th (Ulster) Division has been fighting continuously since the 28th September in the operations in Flanders. The spirit, dash, and initiative shown by all ranks have been splendid and beyond praise. The leadership displayed by yourself and your brigade and other commanders could not have been better. The conditions under which the men have had to fight have been trying, but nothing seemed to stop your gallant division. I have also been struck with the good staff work of the division, and it is very creditable to all concerned. When the history is written of what the division has done in Flanders during the past month it will prove to be a record of magnificent fighting and wonderful progress, for during this period an advance has been made of about twenty-five miles over the worst of country and under the heaviest machine gun fire ever experienced in this war. This advance has entailed constant fighting, but the 36th Division has overcome every obstacle, and has proved itself to be one of the best fighting divisions in the Army -- well commanded and well staffed."


Collision off the Irish Coast. -- The Cunard liner Orduna (New York to Liverpool) cut half way through the oil tank ss. Konakry (London), in a collision south of Galley Head. A U.S. destroyer took off the crew, seven of whom were killed by the Collision. The vessel was beached at Courtmacsherry Bay, and the survivors were landed.


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The Witness - Friday, 13 December 1918


AICKEN -- Dec. 8, at their residence, Ballyhanwood, Co. Down, Jane, widow of the late Robert Aicken; also Margaret Jane, their second daughter.

BREEZE -- Dec. 11, 1918, at her residence, 33, Hamilton Road, Bangor, Sara J. R., widow of the late John Breeze, Solicitor, Glasgow. ALEX. S. BREEZE.

BROOKS -- Dec. 7, at the residence of her son-in-law (Hugh Bailie, Blackabbey, Greyabbey), Jane, widow of the late Samuel Hunter Brooks.

DICKEY -- Dec. 7, at his residence, Risdale, Donaghadee Road, Bangor, Co. Down, Joseph Dickey, late of Rosetta Park, Belfast.

DUNN -- Dec. 11, at his parents' residence, Clare, Bready, Strabane, from pneumonia, following influenza, Robert John, second and dearly-loved son of John James and Alice Dunn, aged 18 years.

GILLILAND -- Dec. 5, at Hillhead, Lisnatrunk, Hillhall, Lisburn, Margaret, the beloved wife of James Gilliland.

GOUDY -- December 6, 1918, at his father's residence, Loanends, Muckamore, Robert, the youngest son of Samuel and Mary Goudy.

GRAHAM -- Dec. 7, at Corvoy, Ballybay, Co. Monaghan, Anna Eliza Hawthorne, wife of the late William Graham, and beloved mother of Mrs. John Baird, 13, Aytoun Road, Pollokshields, Glasgow, aged 82 years.

GROVES -- Aug. 3, 1918, at Hautmont, Germany (whilst prisoner of war), Joseph, son of the late Wm. Groves, Clontibret, Monaghan, and beloved husband of M. Margaret Groves,

HERDMAN -- Dec. 4, at Ballyhill, Jane, relict of the late George Herdman.

JAMISON -- Dec. 7, at New Street, Donaghadee (suddenly), Joseph Jamison.

JOHNSTON -- Dec. 5, at Ballindrum, Moneymore, Edward Johnston.

MORRISON -- Dec. 8, at Knockene, Finvoy, Ballymoney, Ellen, widow of the late James Morrison.

M'MULLAN -- Dec. 6, at her father's residence, Drumnacole, Galanagh, Carnlough, Mollie, second and dearly-loved daughter of John and Sarah M'Mullan, aged 18 years.

QUAYLE -- Dec. 5, at his father's residence, Lough View, Strangford, Harold O., eldest son of Herbert P. Quayle.

QUIREY -- Dec. 6, at Seaview Terrace, Whiteabbey, Sarah, daughter of the late Robert Quirey, Ballyhone, Monkstown.

RAINEY -- Dec. 7, at Cork Street Hospital, Dublin, Morton, beloved son of J. W. Rainey, Islandbawn, Muckamore.

ROBINSON -- Dec. 9, at her father's residence, Mary Eleanor (Nellie), wife of Lieutenant J. M. C. Robinson, R.E., and third daughter of Joseph Roulston, Esq., J.P., Gortaclare, Beragh.

SERVICE -- Dec. 8, at the Infirmary, Lisburn Road, Minnie Service, late of Raw Brae, Whitehead.

SHAW -- Dec. 6, at the residence of her late father (John Nesbitt), Railway Street, Ballynahinch, Georgina Barbara, dearly-beloved wife of Hugh Shaw.

SWARBRIGG -- Dec. 6, at his residence, Laurel Villa, Cootehill, John Swarbrigg.

THOMPSON -- Dec. 7, at No. 8, May Avenue, Bangor, Elizabeth, relict of the late James Thompson, of Castletown, Dundalk.

THOMPSON -- Dec. 7, at her residence, Doagh, Minnie, wife of the late James Thompson, and daughter of the late W. C. Heron.




No More Commissions. -- It is understood no more cadets in training will be gazetted, to command ranks. If no emergency arises it is probable they will be demobilised from the cadet battalions.

British Warship Mined. -- H.M.S. Cassandra, Captain E. C. Kennedy, R.N., struck a mine in the Baltic just before midnight on the 4th inst., and sank at one a.m. on December 5th. Eleven men are missing, presumably killed by the explosion. All the remainder of the officers and crew were saved by our destroyers.

Fate of the ex-Kaiser. -- The German Government has decided, according to a Zurich message to the Paris "Journal," to offer no opposition to the demands of the Allies for the ex-Kaiser and ex-Crown Prince to be given up for trial before an inter-Allied Court, and states that its point of view on the subject is that of The Hague.

Britain's Day. -- The King, in a message to the United States on the occasion of the celebration of "Britain's Day," said that the celebration would be welcomed by the people of the British Empire as a proof of the true and lasting friendship of the United States. He prayed that the coming era of peace may find the two nations always united as they are to-day.

White Flour. -- The directions dated November 27th last year relating to imported flour are now repealed, so that the retail sale and use of imported flour is permitted under the same conditions as home-milled flour. White flour will now be obtainable without any special permit, and consequently no official applications need be made either on behalf of invalids or for religious purposes.

Demobilisation Commenced. -- British demobilisation has been entered upon, and for London the centre at Wimbledon Camp from now will become daily the scene of the passage of pivotal men and later of the slip men from the Army to civilian life. Just now 7,000 Christmas leave men are brought across Channel daily in addition to repatriated prisoners and sick and wounded.

Canadian Wheat Crop. -- An Ottawa telegram states that the price of Canadian wheat for next harvest will be referred to the peace Conference before any action is taken by the Dominion Government. Two representatives of the western farmers and grain growers will be appointed to proceed overseas for a conference between Mr. Borden, the British authorities, and the Allies.

Sir Douglas Haig's Holiday. -- According to present arrangements, Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig will arrive at Dover on Friday, the 20th. He will drive through the town, the route being lined by the military. A luncheon will be held at its historic Town Hall, where the Mayor will preset an address. Lady Haig will be present.

Tragic Death of an Army Chaplain. -- On arrival at Plymouth of the train from Paddington the guard discovered in one of the carriages the body of a man believed to be that of an Army chaplain in a kneeling position on the seat with a silk scarf round his neck and fastened to the luggage rack. Among deceased's papers was a railway warrant from France to Penzance.

Belfast Mother's Crime. -- At the Ulster Assizes Margaret Hamilton, wife of a soldier, was tried for the murder of her two-year-old son, David. During a thunderstorm last August she drowned David and another son aged two months in a pond* and tried to drown herself. The jury convicted the prisoner, but found she was insane at the time. The Judge directed her to be detained as a criminal lunatic.

Influenza Scourge. -- Regarding a complaint that there was not proper provision for influenza patients, the Coleraine Guardians were informed by their Clerk, Mr. S. Lecky, that there was a rush of thirty-seven patients in two days. Two nurses were ill, and they had practically only one in the fever hospital. A nurse could not be got. He ascertained that at a dance in the rural district, which was attended by thirty couples, not a single one of them had escaped the 'flu, and several of them had died.

20,000 Gift to University. -- Major David Davies has addressed a letter to Sir John Williams, President of University College of Wales, offering, on behalf of his sisters and himself, to found a chair of international politics at Aberystwyth in memory of fallen students for the study of problems raised by the projects of a league of nations. They are prepared to contribute for this object the sum of 20,000, and would be glad if the proposal be accepted that the chair be associated with the illustrious name of President Wilson.

A Peace Delegate. -- It is announced that Mr. J. R. Clynes, Food Controller, has been appointed one of Great Britain's representatives at the Peace Conference.

Shell Gases as Ballot Boxes. -- Large shell cases, fitted with locked tops and an opening, are to be used in Nottingham as ballot boxes, as a sufficient number of orthodox receptacles are unobtainable.

Derry Teachers and the Organisation. -- Derry Teachers' Association (Protestant) decided, owing to "the action of the Irish Trades Congress in giving support to Sinn Fein," to sever connection with the I.N.T.O., which is affiliated with the Congress.

War Bonus for Pensioners. -- In consideration of the high cost of living it has been decided by the War Cabinet that for the period from November 1st, 1918, to June 30, 1919, a war bonus of 20 per cent. shall be added to the ordinary war pensions granted for disablement or death due to the war service of disabled men and their children and widows and the children of deceased men. Mr. Barnes, announcing the decision in Glasgow, said the soldier disabled and unable to follow his calling will get some 33s as against 27s 6d, and a woman with four children will get 40s 6d as against 33s 6d.

Railway Clerks' Demands. -- The Railway Clerks' Association, with a membership of over 70,000, demands a 38-hour working week for day duty and 34-hour week for night duty; minimum rates of salary for all general clerks ranging from 70 for a youth of sixteen to 230 for a man aged twenty-eight; stationmasters and others ranging from 250 to 1,000 a year; overtime to be at rate-and-a-half, seven hours to constitute a standard day, allowing for one half-holiday each week, preferably on Saturday; double pay for all bank holidays, Good Friday, Christmas Day, and Sundays.

Belfast Bank War Heroes. -- The Lord Bishop of the diocese (Right Rev. Dr. D'Arcy) dedicated a memorial window in the Belfast Cathedral in memory of members of the staff of the Belfast Bank who many made the supreme sacrifice in the war. Sir Edward and Lady Carson were present, and there was a very large congregation; including friends of the fallen soldiers and members of the staff of the bank. The window, which has been erected by the officials of the bank, represents Gideon and his men putting the Midianites to flight, the cry of the Israelites, "The Sword of the Lord and of Gideon," being effectively introduced.

Belfast Secondary Teachers. -- The monthly meeting of the Belfast branch of the Association of Secondary Teachers was held at Ye Olde Castle Restaurant -- Miss E. Davitt, M.A., presiding. There was a general discussion on the statement of Mr. George Watson before the Committee of Inquiry. The meeting emphasised the necessity for a pension scheme for lay teachers, and was of opinion that whatever the scheme it should provide for the payment of pensions on the full scale to all teachers as they retire at the specified age, independent of the number of years the scheme has been in operation.

Women in Industry. -- The Women's Industrial League memorialised the Premier urging freedom in manufacturing industries, and the removal of existing unjust restrictions. The memorial was signed by Lady Rhondda. In reply, Mr. Lloyd George says he hopes to carry out the Treasury agreement of 1915 in such a way as to give the unions no cause for complaint, but women would find ample scope for their activities in industries, and in new ones he would see there should be no discrimination against them, and to permit women to be the cat's-paw for reducing the level of wages was unthinkable.

Protection of Agriculture. -- Speaking at a function in connection with the milling industry in Belfast, Mr. H. M. Pollock, J.P., President of the Chamber of Commerce, said the Prime Minister had said he was determined that industries essential the life of the country should be protected, and in his election address he said that there should be no tax on foodstuffs. He would like to know how the Prime Minister proposed to protect agriculture because if the farmers of Ireland were to be left to the mercy of open markets he was afraid a marked check would take place in the progress and prosperity of Ireland, as agriculture was their premier industry.

Control of Milk. -- In view of the winter shortage of milk, the Food Controller has issued an Order which restricts further the consumption of milk in residential and catering establishments, milk shops, &c. The Order prohibits the service of milk as a separate beverage, and restricts the consumption for other purposes at catering establishments to a maximum weekly quantity calculated on the following basis -- For every breakfast, 1-7th pint; luncheon, 1-14th pint; dinner, 1-14th pint; tea, 1-14th pint. The amended Condensed Milk Order, which was to have come into force on Dec. 9, has been postponed until further notice.

Turkish Worships Surrender. -- The ex-German battle cruiser Goeben has surrendered to the Allies, and is now, lying at Stenia, in the Bosphorus. All the Turkish warships have also surrendered, and are now interned at the Golden Horn, Constantinople. The Russian men of war in the Black Sea Fleet which were manned by Germans have likewise been handed over. The Goeben is probably the most famous of the enemy warships, not because of any war achievements on her part, but because her arrival with the Breslau at Constantinople, after eluding the British warships, is believed to have been an important factor in inducing Turkey to enter the war.

World's Shipping Losses. -- Since March the world's output of merchant shipping tonnage has overtaken the losses during the war; and during the seven months, April to October, the new construction exceeded the losses by more than a million tons. World's merchant tonnage loss through enemy action and marine risks from the outbreak of the October 31 totalled 15,053,796 (gross). Against this has to be set new construction (10,850,000), and enemy tonnage captured (2,392,000), the world's net loss being 1,811,534 tons. Speaking in London, Sir E. Geddes said that during the war 2,475 ships were sunk with crews underneath, and 3,147 vessels were sunk with crews left adrift. Of fishing vessels 670 were sunk. The merchant service had lost 15,000.



Nature of Fatigue. -- Fatigue is the presence in the blood of poisonous by-products of life combustion. While we are aware the poisons accumulate faster than the system can remove them. When we are asleep, when the life combustion is slowed down, the system removes them faster than they accumulate. It is as though ashes accumulate in a stove at such a rate that the fire had to be put out ever so often to allow a chance to remove them.

Mannheim -- The River Port. -- The persistence of our airmen in attacking Mannheim (says a writer in the "Dally Chronicle") indicates the utility of that port in military estimation. For port it is, though far from the sea; a river port of great prosperity. Unlike England, Germany has not neglected her inland waterways, of which she has developed nearly 9,000 miles. Vast labour has been expended on the Rhine to make it navigable up to Mannheim, with the result that steam tugs and petrol-driven vessels haul convoys of barges, each of 2,000 tons burden, to this goal of British airmen.

Waste in Small Things. -- In "Wealth from Waste" Professor Henry Spooner declares that waste goes on in nearly every direction. Apart from big items, look at some of the small ones. There is waste of candles, matches (which ought to be made to strike at both ends), mustard (which should be made up in paste form), pins (which are made and lost by the million), string (the ragpickers of Paris save 660 a year out of bits of string in the rubbish boxes), and tram and bus tickets (which if dropped into a box at the end of the London vehicles alone be sold for 6 a day)

Lucky Thirteen. -- The thirteen superstition has (says the "Daily Express") suffered another blow, according to M. Chasse, Editor of "l'Evenement" of Montreal, and one of the party of Canadian journalists who are now visiting England. "We sailed from an American port," he said, "on Friday, the 13th of the month, with a convoy numbering thirteen vessels. The sum of the figures of our transport's number made thirteen, and the same is true of the number of the pier from which we sailed. Despite all this we had pleasant weather all the way, and enjoyed a safe and speedy trip. The U-boats kept at a distance."

Hospital Linen from Old Plans. -- Some time ago (says a Writer in the "Globe") an excellent scheme was started for converting the linen stripped from the back of old plans and engineers' drawings into hospital bandages, and so successfully has the idea worked out at the hands of Sir Francis Fox, a well-known member of the Institute of Civil Engineers, that new depots are to be opened in India and in Scotland. During the six months ending July 31st, 1918, the number of pieces of linen sent to hospitals in various widths of from 8in. to 48in., and lengths of from 2ft. to 30ft. was 24,215, leaving 4,390 pieces still in hand.

The Cow-Tree. -- How would you like a milk-tree in the garden? In the great forests by the seashore of Venezuela there grows a tree, popularly called the cow-tree, because it yields a white juice which the natives often use as milk. It is wholesome and nourishing, looks like milk, and tastes as sweet as cream. To get it, the trunk of the tree is cut and the sap oozes from the wound. So it is not nearly so liquid as milk, being in fact rather sticky, which is the only fault found with it. Like milk, it will turn sour if left to stand for a day or two. Other plants also give a milky juice, but in some of those it is of a poisonous nature.

The Coveted Wound Stripe. -- An R.A.M.C. captain, whom I met a few days ego (writes "Clubman" in the "Pall Mall Gazette"), told me many interesting yarns of his work in France. The chief anxiety of the "walking wounded," it appears, is not whether they will get well quickly or whether they will be sent to "Blighty." Nearly every one, after their hurts have been examined and dressed, ask, "Shall I get a wound stripe, sir?" The eagerness of these boys to wear the honourable insignia of wounds received in action is almost pathetic," said the M.O. "They cheer up wonderfully when I say, 'Yes, you'll get a wound stripe all right. I'll see to it that your name's in the casualty list.'"



Dr. Thos. Leary. -- The funeral of Dr. Thos. Leary, J.P., Castlederg, took place to the Presbyterian Cemetery, and was very largely attended by prominent men from the town and district, Strabane, and Londonderry. Business was entirely suspended in the town. A short service was conducted in deceased's house prior to the removal of the remains by Rev. W. F. Henderson, Second Castlederg Presbyterian Church, in which the deceased served for thirty-two years as an elder and as secretary and treasurer, and by Rev. James M'Cay, First Castlederg Presbyterian Church. The funeral was a Masonic one, deceased being a Past Master and Past King of the Order, and the funeral procession was headed by members of the Castlederg Masonic Lodge.

Mr. Richard Bagwell. -- The death of Mr. Richard Bagwell, J.P., D.L., occured at Clonmel. The deceased took a prominent part in Unionist politics in Ireland, and was one of the original signatories to the recent "call" to Unionosts. He was special Local Government Commissioner from 1898 to 1903, and a Commissioner of National Education since 1906. His writings included "IrelandUnder the Tudors" and "Ireland Under the Stuarts." His only son is manager of the Great Northern Railway.

An Irish Judge. -- The death occurred, at his residence, 26, Lower Leeson Street, Dublin, of Sir William Moore Johnston, Bart., formerly one of the Justices of the King's Bench in Ireland. Sir William, who was in his 90th year, was the only son of the late Rev. William Johnston, M.A., formerly rector of Glenore , County Cork. He was returned a member of Parliament for Mallow at the general election of April, q880, and on the formation of Mr. Gladstone's Administration he was appointed Solicitor-General for Ireland. He afterwards held the position of Attorney-General, and was appointed Judge of the High Court of Justice in Ireland, Queen's Bench Division, in 1883. The case of greatest importance in which he was engaged as council was probably the Phoenix Park murders, in which he was the leader for the prosecution.

Coleraine Factory Director. -- There is much regret in Coleraine and throughout the manufacturing industry generally at the death of Mr. Matthew Given, director of Messrs. R. H. & S. Rogers, Ltd., London, owners of Coleraine Shirt and Collar Factory. He had, during the past thirty-eight years, developed the concern from very small dimensions to its presence commanding position, and to the employment of over 400 hands. In St. Patrick's Church he was a devoted member, and he was a leading temperance worker. There is much sympathy for his only son (Mr. John G. Given), three daughters, and sister in their bereavement.

Strabane Airman's Funeral. -- Rev. E. Clarke, The Manse, Strabane, has recieved a letter from a French priest in the town of Cy????. telling how his son, Lieutenant J. K. Clarke, R.A.F., lost his life in combat over the town on the morning of 22nd July last. A patrol of German Pioneers robbed him after he had fallen. The Mayor had the bodies conveyed to the local hospice, asked and obtained permission to have a funeral, which was at once arranged for the next morning at 9 o'clock. It was a splendid demonstration. The whole population attended. There were more than 200 children present, each carrying a bunch of flowers. Then came the clergy, walking before the two coffins, behind which were the members of the town council, followed by the general public.


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