The Witness - Friday, 7 September 1917


MOORE--MARTIN -- August 29, at Donore Presbyterian Church, Dublin, by the Rev. Wm. K. M'Lernon, B.A., William Alexander, second son of the late Thomas Moore, Laurencetown, Co. Down, to Margaret Todd, only daughter of Hugh Martin, Avonmore House, Terenure, Dublin.


BROWN -- September 5, at her residence, Ballinaloob, Annie, relict of the late Samuel Brown.

BURGESS -- August 30, accidentally drowned at Castlerock, Reginald G. Burgess, M.A., of Portora Royal School, Enniskillen.

GARDNER -- August 31, at Lisnatrain, Lisburn, James, beloved son of Campbell and Agnes Gardner.

GILLILAND -- September 2, at the Cowan-Heron Cottage Hospital, Dromore, Co. Down, Mary Jane Gilliland.

GILMER -- August 30, at 108, Abbey Street, Bangor, Catherine, relict of the late James Gilmer.

GRACEY -- September 4, at his residence, Rose Cottage, Mullahead, Tandragee, John, the beloved husband of Maria Gracey.

GRAY -- August 29, at his residence, Thomas Street, Armagh, William, beloved husband of Minnie Greer.

HANNA -- July 20, at Hamilton, Ontario, Oswald John Donaldson, eldest son of Crozier Hanna, Winnipeg, Canada.

HOGG -- August 30, at Beechmount, Moneymore, Hugh Bryson Hogg.

LOUGH -- September 2, at his residence, Ardnaveigh, Antrim, John, the beloved husband of Elizabeth Lough.

MACDONALD -- September 2, at Stranmore, Sans Souci, Agnes, wife of the late James Dunsmuir Macdonald, R.N.R., late Superintendent, Mercantile Marine, Greenock.

M'CLELLAND -- September 2, at Cottown, Co. Down, Alice, widow of the late William M'Clelland.

M'CONNELL -- September 4, at Seaview Farm, Loughries, Newtownards, Elizabeth (Lizzie), eldest daughter of the late J. W. M. M'Connell.

M'DADE -- August 31, at his residence, 17, Halliday's Road, George H. M'Dade, Compositor, dearly-beloved husband of Annie M'Dade.

M'ILROY -- September 4, at her late residence, The Grove, Leitrim, Banbridge, Mrs. Elizabeth M'Ilroy, aged 75 years.

PICKEN -- August 30, at his residence, Craigarnskey, Killinchy, William Russell.

SHAW -- September 3 (suddenly), at Barberstown House, Straffan, Co. Kildare, Thomas Shaw, J.P.

SPENCE -- September 2, at his residence, 203, Albertbridge Road, Samuel Spence, dearly-beloved husband of Anna Spence.

STEWART -- September 3, at his father's residence, Englishtown, Maze, Lisburn, Robert Stewart, B.A.

WARD -- September 3, at Ballymena, Mrs. Jean Ward.

WARING -- September 3, at Liswyn, Antrim Road, Lisburn, Jack, second and dearly-beloved son of James and Margaret Waring, Smithfield, Lisburn.

WHITE -- August 30, at Thorndale Nursing Home, 120, Antrim Road, Belfast, William J. White, Solicitor, Castleblayney.

WILSON -- September 4, at her residence, Maxwellswalls, Sarah Wilson, elder daughter of the late John Wilson, aged 82 years.

In Memoriam

LYONS -- In loving memory of the Rev. A. S. Lyons, who entered into rest on the 7th September, 1908.
"Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God." -- Matt. v. 8.
Inserted by his sorrowing Wife and Family.
Windsor Bank, Newry, September, 1917.



An octogenarian widower, George Crouch, has just died at Chatham, in the house in which he was born in 1832.

A postcard posted at Marazion, Cornwall, on January 11, 1912, has just been delivered to the addressee at Guildford.

The appointment is announced of the first woman branch secretary of the National Union of Railwaymen at Ashton-under-Lyne.

The President of the Tanners' Association states that 35,000,000 of army boots have been produced during the past 2½ years by British manufacturers for Britain and the Allies.

The Duke of Devonshire, Governor-General of Canada, has announced the engagement of his eldest daughter, Lady Maud Cavendish, to Captain Angus Mackintosh, his aide-de-camp.

A donkey belonging to Mrs. Easterbrook, Farnaught, Mohill, upset a bee-hive and was stung to death by the angry bees. Its owner, seeking to drive the bees away, received seventeen stings.

The death has occurred at Bridgwater in his eighty-fifth year of Colour-Sergeant Robert Cross, a Crimean veteran, who held the Crimean, Turkish, long service, good conduct, and meritorious service medals.

A tragic affair has occurred at the Queen's Head Hotel, Old Brompton, Chatham, a young lieutenant named Isaacs being found shot dead in a bedroom. It is understood, he belonged to South Africa and was attached to an English battalion.

An aeroplane in which Flight Sub-Lieut. J. E. Thomas, R.N.A.S., was flying with a passenger, Mr. Robert Norton, fell in a field at Yeovil. The pilot was killed instantly, and the passenger sustained a dislocated hip and other injuries.

Mr. R. Graham, Belfast, has been appointed by the War Office purchaser in Ireland of all the cattle required for the troops. The largest meat contract ever concluded in Ireland was made in Belfast recently in connection with army supplies.

John Burke, of Cabermore, County Galway, tried by a district Court-martial on August 21 and found guilty of breach of the Defence of the Realm Regulations, has been sentenced to nine months' imprisonment without hard labour.

Cork Grammar School has been burglariously entered, and fifty-six rifles, thirty revolvers, and a number of swords have been stolen. There is an officer's training corps in connection with the school, who used the weapons for practice.

At a conference of the Workman's National Housing Council in Blackpool, Mr. Stephen Walsh, M.P., Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government Board, told the delegates that the need for housing reform was urgent and the people had been hitherto held fast in a labyrinth of vested interests.

A memorial window erected in Gourock Parish Church to the memory of the late ex-Provost Robert Binnie, was unveiled and dedicated on Sabbath at the forenoon service, which was conducted by the Rev. David Purves, D.D., Elmwood Church, Belfast, formerly minister of St. John's United Free Church, Gourock. Mr. Binnie, who died on December 30, 1916, at the age of ninety-three, was for many years a member of the session of Gourock Parish Church, and clerk to the trustees. A generation ago he was prominent in the public life of Gourock, and he was Provost of the burgh for twelve years, from 1877 to 1889.

The Henry Ford Motor Co. has presented to the Red Cross Society motors, &c., to the value of half a million dollars (100,000) for use in France.

Lord Mayor Johnston, at the Belfast Corporation meeting, presented a certificate and grant from the Carnegie Hero Fund to the widow of Naval Seaman D. J. Clarke, who was drowned in a gallant attempt to save the life of Alex. M'Endoe, of the Royal Irish Rifles, in Belfast Lough.

At the annual (Irish) Sectional Conference of the Co-operative Union, Ltd., and the Irish Co-operative Conference Association, in Dublin, the shortage of sugar supplies was stated to be a serious handicap to all the societies, especially to recently-formed ones, many of which had been for months unable to secure an ounce.

Private Francis M'Glone, Seaforth Highlanders, of Pomeroy, Co. Tyrone, has been made the recipient of a presentation by admirers in Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, where he had been employed prior to volunteering. Although, only twenty-two years of age he won the D.C.M. at Loos, and for bravery at Arras was awarded the Military Medal.

At a special meeting of the Ballymena National Teachers' Association Mr. W. W. M'Fetridge and Mr. R. Neilly were appointed delegates to the forthcoming special congress of the Irish National Teachers' Association in Dublin. At a meeting of the county association held subsequently, Messrs. J. Gault and Hugh Kerr were unanimously appointed representatives, to the conference.

At Seaforde, Co. Down, from the 6th August to the end of the month the only dry day was the 27th. Rain fell on twenty-five days, the total for the month being 7.28 inches, making the total rainfall since 1st January 24.51 inches. In August last year there were fifteen wet days, in which 3.04 inches of rain fell, the total for the first eight months of the year being 25.52 inches.

An Ulster Discharged Sailors' and Soldiers' Association has been formed for the purpose of placing discharged service men in employment. The association, which will work in harmony with the Pensions Committee, will be non-political and non-sectarian, and will embrace the whole province in its organisation, and will work through the existing Parliamentary constituencies.

Two boating accidents, involving the loss of seven lives, took place on the Thames. An electric launch containing ten persons out for a moonlight sail collided with Boulter's Weir, and a lady and two gentlemen were drowned. In the evening a punt containing a master and seven boys from an industrial school near Staines was swept over Chertsey Lock by the swollen current. The master and three boys were drowned.

At Hollybank, Magherafelt, Mr. Joseph Bowden, of Cootehill, disposed of the choice herd of shorthorn cattle belonging to Mr. John George, V.S. The herd was composed mainly of Rosewoods. Buyers were present from England and Scotland, and competition ruled so keen that nine cows and heifers made the splendid average of 139 8s 4d, while four calves averaged 64 11s 6d. The top price of the sale was 265 guineas.

The Board of Trade have issued an Order under the Defence of the Realm Act increasing the charges for carrying merchandise between Great Britain and Ireland. The increased charges are allocated to the sea portion of the journey, and are as follow:-- On goods and minerals, 7s 6d per ton; on horses, mules, and other beasts of burden, 7s 6d per head; on cattle and calves, 3s 9d per head; on pigs, sheep, and goats, 1s 6d per head; on lambs and other small animals, 9d per head.

A Berlin telegram says that the German CroWn Princess gave birth to a daughter on Wednesday.

The death has taken place at his residence, Carrigart, County Donegal, of Dr. D. Christie, who for upwards of fifty years occupied the position of medical officer of Carrigart dispensary district.

The Tobacco Control Board is considering the pooling of supplies of matches for distribution through a central organisation, and says if rigid economy is exercised by everyone there is no fear of shortage.

The Central News learns that 20,000,000 are involved in the combine of British explosives companies which is now under negotiation, and whose details will be disclosed early in October. Fifteen concerns will be absorbed, and a controlling company formed.

Captain Boggan, formerly connected with the Glasgow steamers of Messrs. G. & J. Burns, was believed- to have teen lost in the Mediterranean Sea on board a Government ship, but has wired from Malta to his relatives in Glasgow announcing that he is safe.

While flying along the South Coast of England Lieutenant Kinkaid, R.F.C., nose-dived from a height of about 300 feet and fell into a meadow near the railway line at Worthing. The unfortunate officer was killed and his machine smashed to pieces.

Damage to the extent of several thousand pounds was caused by a fire at a munition works at a North-East of England coast town. The main building was almost completely burned out, and roof collapsed, doing serious damage to the machinery.

The greater part of the German Press confused the late Earl Grey with Viscount Grey (formerly Sir Edward Grey, Foreign Secretary ah the outbreak of the war), and on receiving news of the former's death, published obituaries of the latter, mostly mildly favourable in tone.

The number of animals shipped from the port of Belfast during the week ending the 1st September, 1917, was -- 1,745 cattle, l,265 sheep, 1 swine, 10 horses, 3 asses -- total animals, 3,024. For corresponding week last year -- 3,241 cattle, 1,838 sheep, 39 swine, 149 horses, 2 asses -- total animals, 5,269.

A conference between Swiss delegates and the representatives of France, Italy, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States concluded an agreement restricting the export of chocolate to enemy countries. Switzerland will be given facilities to dispose of its surplus stocks of chocolate.

Messrs. Furness, Withy, & Co., have purchased the entire fleet of modern cargo steamers belonging to Messrs. James Gardiner & Co., of Glasgow. There are fourteen vessels aggregating about 70,000 tons. Four of the vessels were built this year, and the oldest was launched in 1901.

The funeral took place on Saturday to the City Cemetery, Belfast, of Mr. Reginald G. Burgess, M.A., headmaster of Portora Royal School, Enniskillen, who was drowned while bathing at Castlerock. The boys of Portora School carried the coffin from the cemetery chapel to the graveside.

The death has occurred at Bangor, Co. Down, where he has resided, since his retirement in 1916, of Mr. Frederick Scroope, formerly manager of the High Street, Belfast, branch of the National Bank. He was a great authority as a naturalist.

It was stated by the prosecuting solicitor at Hull Police Court that owing to a fireman failing to join his ship the vessel was delayed a day, involving an expenditure and loss of 300. Defendant, Karl Thorkildsen, said he was drunk, and believed he had been drugged. He was sent to prison for twenty-eight days.

At the trial of General Sukhomlinoff documents read showed his connivance with a company from whom he ordered 1,000,000 shell fuses to the value of 7,000,000 roubles, though he knew the company's works could not deal with such orders; at the same time he ordered payment to the company of 2,500,000 roubles,

When Messrs. Pullar & Sons re-opened their works at Perth after a week's closure non-unionists were abused by strikers. Women had their clothes destroyed and hats torn off. The police were overpowered, and mounted men had to be called in. Employees of other works helped the strikers. Several arrests were made.

The Board of Trade announces that his Majesty the King, has been pleased, on the recommendation of the President of the Board of Trade, to award the bronze medal for gallantry in saving life at sea to Corporal (now Sergeant) William Thomas Watson and Corporal Henry Holmes, formerly of the Reserve Battalion Royal Irish Rifles, in recognition of their services at the wreck of the Danish ship Fulvia, of Sveneborg, in Dundrum Bay, County Down, on 18th November, 1916.

Mr. W. A. Lindsay, M.P., presiding at the inspection of the Stranmillis garden plots -- 350 in number -- said those who were devoting time to the raising of food were doing a magnificent service to the community. Those who worked there should realise that in producing potatoes for themselves rather than buying them in the shops they were conferring great benefit upon themselves the community. Mrs. Lindsay distributed the prizes, and congratulatory speeches were delivered by Mr. John Sinclair, Mr. J. Tedford, Mr. J. B. Thompson, Professor Gregg Wilson, and Captain F. C. Fo[--?--]




It seems a bit queer to us to think of our ancestors back in the fifteenth century eating with their knives, but beyond a doubt that was the case. It wasn't because they had had no training in conduct, though; it was because there were no forks. Table forks were scarcely known before the sixteenth century, and even then they were looked upon as very queer instruments. But queer as they were, we wonder how folks ever did without them. How the old people ever managed to shovel their food into their mouths with sharp, steel knives, worn thin with much service, and avoid cutting their tongues or lips, is difficult to tell. Probably they gained dexterity with practice. We are told that the first table fork was brought into Venice by a Byzantine princess, and the people must have thought well of it, because forks multiplied rapidly all over Italy. Later on, Thomas Coryate brought some to England, where the people eyed them suspiciously, and used very few until 1688. They were mostly possessed by noblemen, who owned perhaps a dozen or so, which they used only on state occasions. A table fork was a luxury. In the French and Scottish convents they had little use for this latest fad, and looked upon it as a bad and wicked thing. If one can judge anything from looks, I should say that forks were mostly used as a guide to the knife, when cutting the food, for many of the old forks had only two tines, or prongs, so that getting food from anywhere to anywhere must have been very difficult. Then for a long time the forks were made with three tines. These were a little better. Now we have forks of all shapes and designs -- forks for oysters, forks for pickles, forks for meat, forks for salad, forks for our every need.


The custom of eating fruit in strange connections is pretty universal, and, as in the case of many strange mixtures and flavouring, one often is tempted to ask, "Who tried it first and found it fitted?" Why, for instance, is apple sauce always eaten with goose and roast pork and onions? It seems an odd sort of conjunction. And why is roast saddle of mutton accompanied with raspberry jelly? It has become quite common of late years, too, to take marmalades with one's breakfast rasher. And why should hare and currant jelly, fit? But we are not such sweet folk to-day as were our ancestors, for they used to pour honey over the joint of meat for dinner and relish the odd mixture hugely. Most of our ancestors' dishes would be too rich for our weaker digestive organs. The most accomplished diner-out would shrink from oysters stewed in wine, pigeons stuffed with gooseberries, grapes boiled in butter, and mutton stuffed with oysters. Charles Reade's meals at the Garrick Club were extraordinary, according to his biographer. "A cauliflower flanked by a jug of cream for a first course, and a great salad to follow, washed down by curious drinks of the shandy-gaff order." He would drink coffee associated with sweets, black puddings and toasted cheese. The poet Rogers relates that Byron would dine on biscuits and soda-water, and bruised potatoes drowned in vinegar! But that diet is not likely to become popular even in war time. The feat of the Berlin porter is not, at any rate likely to be soon repeated in these days of bread tickets. For a wager he put away at one sitting big mutton chops, twelve eggs, a goose, a duck, 6lbs. of potatoes, and 22lbs. of hay. He might be allowed the hay in these days, but certainly not the potatoes. But how did he manage to dispose of the hay? He called for a cigarette, set light to the hay, pounded the ashes up with the 6lbs. potatoes, and swallowed the lot.



In a Blue Book just issued, judicial statistics for 1915 are given. The number of persons for trial at Assizes was 986, and the total at Quarter Sessions was 731. There were 3,940 persons proceeded against summarily for indictable offences, and with other offences tried summarily, a grand total was made up of 156,049 cases before Courts of summary jurisdiction. The police returns show a grand total of 158,615 persons apprehended and dealt with on summons. In juvenile courts there was a total of 3,775 non-indictable offences disposed of. The return of proceedings in the office of the Registrar of the Chancery Division and High Court show's the total of 1,728 17s 10d to have been received in fees during the year. In the King's Bench Division the cases tried totalled 197, and the amount recovered by verdict reached the sum total of 14,157. In the County Courts and Recorders' Courts the total number of suits entered was 68,015.



The death occurred in a nursing home in Belfast of Mr. William J. White, solicitor, Castleblayney. Mr. White, who practised with Mr. John Gillespie, had a distinguished career as a law student. In June, 1910, he won the gold medal for legal debate, and he took first place in the final examination for solicitors in January, 1912, and was awarded the Incorporated Law Society's gold medal in the same year. Mr. White, who was a native of Bessbrook, Co. Armagh, has two sons on active service -- one in the Royal Irish Fusiliers and another in navy. The funeral took place on Saturday, and was largely attended. The remains were interred in the graveyard attached to Cootehill Presbyterian Church.




The death has occurred at his residence, 203, Albertbridge Road, Belfast, of Mr. Samuel Spence, a well known city missionary. Deceased, who had been in failing health for some time past, was a familiar figure in East Belfast, He was an elder of Ballymacarrett Presbyterian Church, of which Rev. Dr. M'Kean is the minister, and was very popular amongst the poor in his mission district. In his younger days Mr. Spence was in the service of the old Belfast firm of Marcus Ward & Co., Ltd. One of his sons, Private William Spence, of the Young Citizen Volunteers, fell in action of 7th June last.



The Berne correspondent of the "Morning Post" telegraphs a list of British officers prisoners of war who are interned in Switzerland, and who have been passed for repatriation. The following are included -- Major H. R. Charley, Dunmurry, R.I.R.; Captain J. H. Berry, Springfield Road, Belfast, R.I.R.; Major A. P. Jenkins, Lisburn, R.I.R.; Lieut. T. C. Shillington, Glenmachan, Belfast, R.I.R. The above leave Switzerland for England tomorrow. A party which will depart on Tuesday includes -- Captain Hanly, R.I.F.; Lieut. Gracey, R.I.R.; and Second-Lieut. Shannon; Coleraine, R.I.F.


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The Witness - Friday, 14 September 1917


DUFF--FAIR -- September 4, at Malone Presbyterian Church, by Rev. Archibald Duff (uncle of the bridegroom), William Robert, son of Mr. Nathaniel Duff, J.P., and Mrs. Duff, Grangemount, Ballygawley, to Kathleen Margaret, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Fair, "Hu-Berta," Finaghy Park, Balmoral.

KENNEDY--BRYSON -- August 29, at Ballylinney Presbyterian Church, by the Rev. W. M. Kennedy, B.A., cousin of the bridegroom, Edward, eldest son of Thomas Kennedy, Straidlands, to Agnes, eldest daughter of James Bryson, The Glen, Carntall.

ROSS--RICHARDSON -- September 11, at Great Victoria Street Presbyterian Church, by the Rev. Thomas A. Smyth, LL.B., Samuel J., eldest son of George Ross, Rockcorry, to Mary Elizabeth, only daughter of David Richardson, Monaghan Road (G.N.R.) Station.

WELSH--M'MURRY -- September 5, at First Ballybay Presbyterian Church, by Rev. Arthur Rose, M.A., D.D., Belfast, assisted by Rev. John Martin, B.A., Smithboro', and Rev. H. A. MacKenzie, B.A., Ballybay, Cochrane, son of the late James C. and Catherine Welsh, Carnowen, Smithboro', to Abigail, daughter of the late Thomas N. and Abigail M'Murry, Drumgreeny, Ballybay.


PYPER -- September 11, at his residence, Hillside, Donegall Park, Belfast, James Pyper, M.A., in his 76th year. Funeral strictly private. No flowers.

BOYD -- September 10, at Holywood, Anne, widow of the late Henry Boyd.

CLOTWORTHJY -- September 9, at his residence, 11, Mount Street, Donaghadee, Alexander Clotworthy.

DOHERTY -- September 10, at his mother's residence, 8, Hillman Street, William (Willie) Doherty, Compositor, second and dearly-loved son of Ellen Doherty.

DOLLING -- September 11, at Worthing, Adelaide, (Sister Harriett), third daughter of the late Robert Holbeche Dolling, of Edenmore, Co. Down.

GIBSON -- September 11 (suddenly), at Landscape Terrace, Coleraine, Robert Gibson, formerly of Carthall.

GRAHAM -- September 11, at Rockabey, Newry, Jane, last surviving daughter of the late Robert Graham, Derrywilligan.

HARPER -- July 10, at Sydney, N.S.W., James Porter Harper, eldest son of the late John Harper and of Mrs. Harper, 28, Cyprus Gardens, Bloomfield, Belfast.

HENRY -- September 10, at his residence, Fedney, Banbridge, John, second son of the late Isaac Henry.

KIDD -- September 5, Dr. F. W. Kidd, of 17, Lower Fitzwilliam Street, Dublin, eldest son of the late Frederick W. Kidd, of Dundalk.

KIDD -- September 11, at the residence of her son, Dr. L. Kidd, Enniskillen, Louisa Sydney, widow of the late Frederick Wm. Kidd, of Dundalk, aged 88.

LAWSON -- September 9, at her residence, Dungannon, Eliza, widow of James A. Lawson.

MAHOOD -- September 5, at her residence, Portavogie, Co. Down, Ellen, beloved wife of the late Samuel Mahood.

MORROW -- September 8, at Chelsea, London, Norman M., youngest son of the late George Morrow and Mrs. Morrow, Hanover House, Clifton Street, Belfast.

MORTIMER -- September 7, at his father's residence, West street, Portadown, Harold, second son of Joseph and M. J. Mortimer.

M'CREERY -- September 5, at his residence, Cornslack, Portadown, Joseph M'Creery, in his 85th year.

M'KEOWN -- September 10, at Ballyblagh, Stewartstown, Rachel, wife of the late Thomas M'Keown.

M'NEY -- September 5, at her residence, Craigboy, Isabella M'Ney, the wife of the late Wm. M'Ney.

O'CONNOR -- September 8, at Blackrock, Dublin, Hannah Stewart, widow of the late William Peter O'Connor, of Letallion, Co. Down, and daughter of the late Rev. Alex. S. Ellsmere, B.D., of Rathfriland, County Down.

PRESS -- September 11, at the Belfast Bank House, Movilla, Henry J., second son of the late William Press, Greencastle, Co. Donegal.

SILCOCK -- September 7, at Portrush, Mary Ann, beloved wife of James Silcock, Market Square, Lisburn.

TWEED -- September 7, at 6, Queen Street, Ballymoney, Mary Given, widow of the late James Tweed.

WATSON -- September, 7, at his residence, Helensvale, Glenburn Park, Belfast, John Watson (J. & J. M'Connell, Ltd.).

WHITFIELD -- September 11, at her residence, Rosewood Terrace, Catherine Street, Newry, Catherine (Kitty) Whitfield.



Irish railway clerks have been awarded the 3s war bonus, which puts them on an equality with their fellow-workers in Great Britain.

The British steamer Hockwold, coal laden, was sunk in collision by an unknown steamer off the Lizard. Ten of the crew are missing.

Herr Schiedemann, the German Socialist leader, declares that a majority of the German people favour peace by consent and no annexations.

The Austrian papers announce that it is forbidden in future to use other shrouds or other funeral garments except those made with paper.

Rev. A. Turner, of Templepatrick, has accepted service with the troops in France, and will work there under the auspices of the Y.M.C.A. for the next four months.

A peace meeting which was to have been held on Saturday afternoon in Stevenson Square, Manchester, was stopped by the police. The intending speakers were hooted.

The German submarine U293 entered Cadiz Harbour, towed by torpedo boat No. 11, having run short of lubricating oil. She was immediately interned in Carraca Arsenal.

Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, at the opening of an air services exhibition at Sheffield, said it was his firm conviction that our victory, when it came, would be from the air.

The "Arbeiter Zeitung," Vienna, learns that the death sentence passed on Friedrich Adler, the assassin of Count Stuergkh, has been commuted by the Emperor Charlies to eighteen years' penal servitude.

While disfranchising conscientious objectors and men of alien enemy birth (about 50,000 altogether), the Canadian Parliament is giving the vote to 400,000 mothers, wives, widows, daughters, and others of Canadian soldiers.

Mr. Barnes, at a war aims meeting at Newcastle, urged all to support our forces. He was glad the Trade Union Congress turned down Stockholm. Labour influence must be felt; but it first should make up its mind what it wanted.

Fermanagh County Council has awarded university scholarships (each value for 50 a year for three years) to the following candidates-- Miss Josephine M'Govern, Lisnaskea; Miss Margaret Daly, Belleek; and Mr. Ernest M'Kinney, Lisnaskea.

The Board of Trade have made an Order arranging for a return to the Tobacco Control Board of all matches manufactured or imported in 1915, and the names of persons to whom matches were invoiced and the quantities during that year.

Miss Travers, of Belfast, who is on holiday at Strangford, established the record of being the first woman to swim across Strangford Lough. Setting currents at defiance, she accomplished in twenty minutes the long swim from Oldcourt to Portaferry Quay.

A Liverpool firm of insurance brokers has placed 10,000 at 5 per cent, to cover an assertion that Lord Kitchener was alive on August 31, 1917, "the onus of proof to be on the assured, to be furnished within three months from peace being signed."

The number of animals shipped from the port of Belfast during the week ending the 8th September, 1917, was -- 2,163 cattle, 1,255 sheep, 4 goats, 22 horses; total animals, 3,444. For corresponding week last year -- 3,482 cattle, 1,730 sheep, 19 swine, 134 horses; total animals, 5,365.

Under a new Order of the Food Controller the impart, except under licence, is forbidden o Valencias, muscatels, sultanas, and all other varieties of raisins, dates, dried currants, dried figs, dried prunes and plums, dried peaches and nectarines, dried apricots, pears, and apples.

A charge against Sarah Hinds, Ballymena, of having harboured a deserter named Private F. C. Goymer, Seaforths, was dismissed by Mr. Roche, R.M., as the accused had been misled by the story told her by the soldier, incredible though it might seem, that he was a British Secret Service agent in receipt of 3,000 a year, but had to go in hiding to avert discovery by German spies.

Letters were read from Prince Andronikoff, an influential political adventurer, at the trial of General Sukhomlinoff. One of these to the ex-Czarina, said the accused was the victim of his love for his wife, "who spent recklessly on dress, and forced her husband to procure the necessary means. Though a faithful subject, he sells his conscience, and is becoming a slave in order to gratify the whims of the woman he loves. His salary being insufficient, and his wife spending 10,625 a year, he seeks means to increase his income. His conscience is becoming more elastic, and he does not refuse to take bribes from contractors."

The death occurred at Chelsea, on Saturday, of Mr. Norman M. Morrow, youngest son of the late Mr. George Morrow and Mrs. Morrow, Hanover House, Clifton Street, Belfast. The deceased, who was only thirty-eight years of age, was a very distinguished black and white artist, and his drawings, characterised by brilliant draughtsmanship and marked originality, are familiar to all who subscribe to the illustrated periodicals. He was on the staff of "The Bystander," to which he contributed drawings weekly, and numerous examples of his work have also appeared in the pages of "Punch" and various monthly magazines. One of his brothers is Mr. William Morrow, of Kansas Avenue, Belfast, a member of Fortwilliam Presbyterian Church.

Brigadier-General Page Croft has written to his constituents at Christchurch intimating his intention to place his resignation in the hands of the Unionist organisation so that he may be free to join the newly formed National party. He does not at present desire to cause a bye-election.

The Most Rev. Dr. Crozier has dedicated a Communion table in Belturbet Parish Church to the memory of Mr. H. Vernon, R.N., who was drowned from H.M.S. Hampshire.

Mr. A. C. Forbes, of the Department of Agriculture, who has been appointed assistant controller of timber supplies for Ireland, has arranged for advisory committees appointed by the Chambers of Commerce of Dublin, Belfast, and Cork, to scrutinise applications to purchase soft wood for industrial purposes.

Mr. Herbert Samuel, addressing a War Aims meeting, remarked he should not be speaking with sincerity if he said he saw any prospects of an early peace. Economy was still needed, for the days would come when once more the Government would be obliged to appeal to the country for money to carry on the war.

At the Trades Union Congress at Blackpool, Mr. Clynes, M.P., Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Food, said Lord Rhondda meant business and was not bolstering up any interests. A thousand food controllers could not do justice to the food question without the co-operation of the masses of the people.

With the approval of the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, the Commissioners of Public Works in Ireland have appointed Mr. James Healy, deputy accountant, to be their secretary in succession to Mr. Henry Williams, M.V.O., I.S.O., on his retirement on the 15th inst. after nearly fifty years of valued service.

Rev. Dr. Kissane, a native of County Kerry, has resigned the Chair of Sacred Scripture in St. Augustine's Seminary, Toronto, for the Chair of the Old Testament in his Alma Mater, Maynooth College. He read a brilliant course at the Biblical Institute, Rome, and investigated, the Oriental setting of the Bible by visits to the Holy Land.

Professor W. C. M'Intosh has resigned the Chair of Natural History in St. Andrews University after a connection with the university as student and professor extending over a period of sixty-four years. On his retirement Professor M'Intosh leaves the university all his scientific library and special apparatus utilised in the study of natural zoology.

Lance-Corporal A. T. Staines, of Writtle, in Essex, has marks of eighty-four pieces of grenade in his body. Staines belongs to the Canadian Mounted Rifles, and a rifle grenade struck the top of the trench which he was holding with his comrades. He was wounded in practically every part of his body. He was nursed back to life in hospitals in France and England.

A special conference of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, held at Blackpool, decided that all men who have gone into the mines from other industries since August 4, 1914, should be taken out by the military authorities before any of the permanent workers of the industry are taken for military service. 20,000 men from the mines are wanted for the army.

At the annual meeting of the Ballymena Y.M.C.A. -- Rev. W. H. Sloane, B.A., presiding -- the election of officebearers took place with the following result:-- President, Mr. Robert Crawford (re-elected); Mr. Hugh Lusk, secretary (re-elected); and Mr. Hugh A. Dunlop, treasurer (re-elected); librarian, Mr. Alex. Greer (re-elected). The annual reports of the secretary and treasurer were submitted by Messrs. Lusk and Dunlop, and unanimously adopted.

One of the most remarkable instances of profit-earning by a cargo steamer has occurred at Liverpool. There arrived in the port a vessel which carried a cargo of 45,000 cases of onions from Valencia. The rate of freight paid on arrival was 16s 6d per case, which works out to be the extraordinary total of over 37,000 for the nine days' voyage from Valencia to Liverpool. The vessel is not British owned, but sails under the flag of an Allied nation.

Sir William Whitla, M.D., at the opening of the Belfast Garden Plots Association exhibition on Saturday afternoon, said England had only one real danger confronting her at this moment, and that was the peril of the peace crank and the weak-minded and weak-kneed pacifist. Victory for them and for their Allies was as certain as was to-morrow's sun to rise if they steadfastly maintained their resolve. Peace now would mean ruin to every country in the world except Germany.

As a result of the conference between the Irish Railway Executive Committee and representatives of the National Union of Railwayman, the full demand made on behalf of Irish railway servants has been conceded. The decision means that the war bonuses now being paid (males, eighteen years and over, 15s a week; under eighteen years, 7s 6d a week; and women, 7s 6d a week) will cease as such, and will be payable as wages as from August 1, 1917, the payments being taken into consideration for overtime and Sunday work.

Sinn Fein meetings which were announced to be held on Sabbath at Mitchelstown, County Cork, in Omagh, County Tyrone, were proclaimed by the Competent Military Authority for Ireland. The proclamation stated that there was reason to believe that the holding of the meetings would give rise to grave disorder and cause undue demands to be made upon the police or military forces. At a meeting at Carrickmore, Co. Tyrone, Mr. De Valera, M.P., who was greeted with boohs and groans from Hibernians, said if they were followers of Mr. Redmond they should be in khaki.




The fact that a fly can walk on a glazed or slippery perpendicular surface has long been a matter of observation. It was at first thought that the fine hairs that cover his legs were so small that they could enter the pores of the smoothest surface, and in that way bear the weight of his body. Later it was thought that a sticky fluid secreted by the feet caused them to adhere slightly to the wall. The advent of the microscope made it possible to observe the precise facts about the fly's unusual powers. It is true that a fly's feet secrete a kind of grease, but not in a liquid form. Each leg has from 600 to 2,000 minute hairs, and each hair carries a certain amount of this fat. When the fly lights on a smooth surface, the whole mass of hairs adheres to it, and each individual hair can be seen, under the microscope, to leave a distinct grease spot. With such sticky feet it is naturally the case that a fly collects a good deal of dust in the course of his daily perambulations. If he wishes to walk on glass, or upside down on the ceiling, he must spend a few hours every day keeping his feet clean of this coating.


There is a singular tree in Cuba -- the yaguoy tree -- that affords a striking illustration of the progress and fatality of sin. This tree begins to grow at the top or midway of another tree. The seed is carried by a bird, or wafted by the wind, and, falling into some moist branching part takes root and speedily begins to grow. It sends along a kind of thin, stringlike root, down the body of the tree that is occupied, which is soon followed by others. In course of time these rootlings strike the ground, and growth immediately commences upward. New rootlings continue to be formed and get strength until the one tree grows as a net with the other inside. The outside one surrounds and presses the inner, like a huge girdle of snakes, strangling its life and augmenting its own power. At last the tree within is killed, and the parasite that has taken possession becomes itself the tree. What a picture of the enslaving and fatal power of sin as it attaches itself to a man, and with his consent is allowed! It may have a small beginning, but soon binds him with cords, gains increasing mastery, and presses upon his very life. He is held in fetters by its powers, till at last the tyrant overcomes the victim and triumphs over its prey.



Well-Known Belfast Educationist.

We regret to announce the death of this well-known and highly respected citizen, the efficient and revered principal and proprietor of the Belfast Mercantile College, which took place on Tuesday evening at his residence, Hillside, Donegall Park. The deceased, who was in this seventy-sixth year, had not been in good health for somg time past, and the news of his death will be received with feelings of profound sorrow by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance, while the deepest sympathy will be extended to his bereaved relatives in their severe affliction.

Mr. Pyper was born in the year 1841, and was a son of a County Down farmer and a staunch Presbyterian. He graduated in 1868 in the old Queen's University in Ireland, which preceded the formation of the Royal University, and took his M.A. degree in the following year, two of his college companions being the late Right Honourable Thos. Sinclair and the late Mr. R. J. M'Mordie. He subsequently joined his elder brother, Mr. John Pyper, who had founded in 1854 the Eglinton Academy, in schoolrooms adjoining the Presbyterian Church. This school was in every way eminently successful, and after some years it was removed to the building, at the corner of Donegall Street and North Queen Street, close to Ekenhead Church, where it remained until 1872, when, the accommodation being totally inadequate to meet the needs of the steadily increasing number of pupils, the present spacious and finely equipped buildings in Clifton Street were erected, and the establishment was duly transferred thereto. Mr. John Pyper had in the meantime given up his scholastic work in order that he might devote himself wholly to the cause of temperance. Mr. James Pyper, who was also greatly devoted to temperance ideals, thereupon took charge of the school, and, having his work absolutely at heart, infused into it all his abundant energy. He was a pioneer not only as regards Belfast, but as regards Ireland of commercial education. He specialised in imparting the kind of knowledge which fits youth for modern commercial life, and many of our moist successful citizens, as well as many others who leaving Ireland have won commercial eminence beyond the seas, owe much of their success to the excellent training imparted under Mr. Pyper. The establishment has since continued to grow and flourish until at the present time it possesses a roll of over 400 pupils. Mr. Pyper's prominent position and great experience in the educational world have been frequently recognised in the highest quarters. Upon several occasions he has, by invitation, given evidence before Royal Commissions, and his views upon commercial education have always been received with great respect by all interested in the subject. A man of the highest integrity and of great strength of character, he conducted the Mercantile College on the soundest and most commendable lines, and it is perhaps not too much to say that no institution of the kind in this country has made such rapid and substantial progress in the same period.

Mr. Pyper always took a deep interest in the life and work of the Presbyterian Church, to which he was deeply attached. He was for many years an elder of St. Enoch's, and took an active part in the development of the work of the Shankill Road Mission. Latterly he has been prominently identified with Fortwilliam Church, of which the Rev. Dr. Maconaghie is senior pastor. In conjunction with every aspect of church life he was always ready and eager to share in temperance and philanthropic work of all kinds. He took a keen interest in the work of the City Y.M.C.A., and was for many years a member of the committee. He was a great lover of outdoor sports of every description, and encouraged his pupils to take part in all manly pastimes. His principal hobby was golf, he being a keen member of the Royal Portrush Club, and a well-known figure on the Ormeau and other Belfast links.

Mr. Pyper married a daughter of Mr. Henry James Rice, M.D., of Mountmellick, Queen's County, his wife predeceasing him some five years ago. He leaves five sons and two daughters. The sons are Mr. H. S. R. Pyper, B.A., who succeeds him as principal and proprietor of the college; Rev. James Pyper, of Duncairn Church; Rev. J. S. Pyper, of Portrush; Mr. D. D. Pyper, B.A., who is engaged in the motor business; and Mr. W. W. Pyper, B.A., a licentiate of the Presbyterian Church. The two daughters are Mrs. Glendinning, widow of the late Rev. J. P. C. Glendinning, of Saintfield; and Mrs. Charles Smith, now residing in Leicester.



The King's Wish.

The King, interpreting in his usual happy manner the wishes of his people, has expressed a desire that there shall be some special recognition of the services of our troops in Belgium and France in the earlier part of the war in 1914. As a result the soldiers of that heroic little force which covered itself with glory in the retreat from Mons, and stemmed the German rush on Paris, are to be given a distinctive decoration, with riband, which shall proclaim to the world their honourable service. The official announcement, which comes appropriately enough at the time when the Battle of the Marne, the turning point in the war, is being celebrated, is in the following terms:-- The King, having expressed a wish to recognise specially the services given, in the earlier part of the war in 1914, by troops in France and Belgium, the Army Council -- after consultation with Field-Marshal Viscount French -- have advised his Majesty that the object could best be met by the award of a distinctive decoration, with riband, but without clasp, to all Officers, Warrant Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and Men on the establishment of a unit of the British Expeditionary Forces, including the Indian Contingent, the Royal Naval Division, and other naval and marine units, who landed for service in France or Belgium during the earliest and most critical phase of the war up to and including the Battle of Ypres. Arrangements are being made accordingly to give effect to his Majesty's wishes, and a further announcement on this subject will be made.


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The Witness - Friday, 21 September 1917


HUMPHRY--PURVIS -- September 14, by special license, at the residence of the bride's father, by the Rev. J. B. Woodburn, Holywood (brother-in-law of the bride), and the Rev. James Hunter, Knock, Alexander Murchison Humphry, Major R.A.M.C., youngest son of the late A. P. Humphry, M.V.O., D.L., Horham Hall, Shapted, Essex, to Vida May, youngest daughter of David Purvis, Knockdene Park, Belfast.

LYTTLE--WARDEN -- September 12, at Ballygrainey Presbyterian Church, by the Rev. S. W. Morrison, assisted by the Rev. Thomas C. Stuart (brother-in-law of the bridegroom) and the Rev. J. K. Cronne, William W. Lyttle, eldest son of Francis Lyttle, J.P., Mount Ross, Portaferry, to Bessie, only daughter of Robert Warden, Summer Hill, Ballygrainey, Co. Down.

M'CORMACK--WARNOCK -- September 12, at Drumbo Presbyterian Church, by Rev. Jas. Tolland, assisted by Rev. Wm. M'Nutt, B.A., and Rev. Joseph Cordner, B.D., Captain Campbell M'Neill, M.C., R.A.M.C., youngest son of Mr. William M'Cormack and Mrs. M'Cormack, Hillhall House, Lisburn, to Ella Todd (Fernlea, Eastleigh drive, Belfast), only daughter of the late Rev. Wm. James Warnock, B.A., B.D., (formerly minister of Drumbo Presbyterian Church), and the late Mrs. Warnock.


MAIN -- September 19, at Newcastle (suddenly), Harriet, widow of the late James Main, Ballooley, Katesbridge. Funeral from her late residence, Ballooley, to Ballroney, to-day (Friday), 21st, at one o'clock.

CAITHNESS -- September 16, at Rathmona, Whiteabbey, William Caithness.

COLLINS -- September 8, at her brother's residence, The Hill, Moyessett, Tobermore, Mary Ann Collins, widow of the late Stewart Collins, Longfield, Desertmartin, in her 76th year. JACKSON CLARKE and Family.

FERGUSON -- September 15, 1917 (suddenly), at her residence, Bellavista, Windsor Park, Mary, the beloved wife or Acheson Ferguson.

GASTON -- September 16, at Waveney Cottage, Ballymena, Lizzie, the dearly-beloved wife of R. J. Gaston.

GWYNN -- September 18, at her residence, 1, Salisbury Villas, Chichester Park, Mary, eldest daughter of the late William James Gwynn, Solicitor, Antrim.

HARRISON -- September 16, at his residence, Masonic Hall, Regent Street, Newtownards, Samuel Harrison.

KELLY -- Suddenly, at his residence, Derryvene, Dungannon, Archibald Kelly.

LOVE -- September 7, accidentally drowned in a lake in Co. Armagh, the Rev. John Love, M.A., D.D., senior minister of Glenelly Presbyterian Church, Co. Tyrone.

MOORE -- September 15, at her brother-in-law's residence, Ballywindland, Ballymoney, Matilda Small, wife of W. J. Moore, E.R.A., H.M.S. Aquarius.

MURPHY -- September 14, at 21, Marquis Street, Newtownards, Jane, dearly-loved infant daughter of Samuel and Minnie Murphy.

M'FADDEN -- September 18, at his residence, Kirkcubbin, Hugh M'Fadden, aged 90 years.

M'ILWAINE -- September 13, at her residence, Magheraleggan, Margaret, beloved wife of the late Robert M'Ilwaine.

NEVIN -- August 18, at Whitebird, Idaho, U.S.A., John, the eldest son of the late James Nevin, Ballygan, Ballymoney.

PALMER -- September 16, at Ballyhalbert, Essie Palmer, third daughter of Samuel and Annie Palmer.

RICHARDSON -- September 17, at his son's residence, Derrygowan, Randalstown, Samuel Richardson.

ROBINSON -- September 16, at his residence, Milberry, Caledon, Henry William, dearly-loved husband of Martha Robinson.

SIBBINS -- September 19 (suddenly), at the Mater Hospital, Joseph, beloved husband of Edith Sibbins, 292, Old Lodge Road.

SMITH -- September 12, at Islington, Terenure, Dublin, Leah (Lila) Smith, youngest daughter of the late Thomas Smith, Brighton.



A peach tree raised from a stone planted at Southborough fifteen years ago has this year over 1,000 peaches on it.

Many of the Lurgan weavers who were thrown out of employment through the textile strike, are now at work on farm in the neighbourhood helping with the harvest.

The official reduction in the price of bread, by which the 4lb. loaf is reduced to 9d through the application of a State subsidy towards the cost of flour, took effect on Monday.

At Ballymoney grass market 2,700 bags were on sale. Italian was from 31s per cwt. down, mixed from 27s 6d, and perennial from 21s 6d. The total value of seed in the market was 5,000.

The steamer Ousel, owned by the Cork Steamship Company, Ltd., was sunk by collision on Friday night. The master, mate, and sixteen of the crew were saved. Five are reported missing.

During the last two days over 300 applications have been made for divorce by poor persons in London, the majority of the applicants being soldiers, and the number of applications is daily increasing.

The number of animals shipped from the port of Belfast during the week ending 15th September, 1917, was -- 12 horses, 3,835 cattle, 1,582 sheep, 2 goats. For corresponding week last year -- 56 horses, 3,025 cattle, 1,487 sheep, 38 pigs.

A responsible Canadian officer, in an interview, characterised the statements attributed to Dr. Chown, of Toronto, that Canadian soldiers in England were exposed to excessive temptations as absurd. There was no information for the statement.

Speaking on the eve of the first anniversary of prohibition in Ontario, the Premier said the result had been up to the greatest expectations. Increased efficiency, in every branch of industry had resulted, while hotel accommodation had improved.

The accidental discovery of wire nails consigned to Sweden covered with lead caps has led the New York Customs authorities to hold up a shipment of 300 cases of nails. There was enough lead on each nail for the manufacture of a rifle bullet.

The crops of flax and corn stacked along the sides of the river at Castlederg have suffered very severely as a result of the heavy rain. The river rose rapidly, submerging the fields on either side, and in low-lying districts large quantities of stuff were carried away.

The ss. Orenoque (Messagaries Maritimes Line) and the oil vessel Bouvet have collided in the Mediterranean. A fire broke out in the latter, which sank, her crew being saved. The Orenoque, though damaged, reached the Algerian coast. Some of her hands, who jumped overboard, were drowned.

At Londonderry Petty Sessions District-Inspector Ryan charged Rev. Professor Strahan, D.D., M'Crea Magee College, Londonderry, under the Defence of the Realm Regulations with carrying a camera in a prohibited area without lawful authority. District-Inspector Ryan said Professor Strahan acted quite innocently in the matter. The magistrates dismissed the case under the Probation Act.

The Belfast Carters' Society has made on behalf of the men an application to the Master Carriers' Association for a further increase in wages as follows -- One-horse driver, 6s per week; two-horse driver, 9s per week. Overtime to be abolished, or where imperative to be paid at the rate of time and a half, and double time for Sunday work. The application requests the increase as from the first day in October.

King George had a very narrow escape fron a serious motor accident while proceeding through Hounslow in his car. A large motor lorry belonging to the Army Service Corps got out of control in turning into the main road just as the Royal car conveying his Majesty passed at considerable speed, and but for the adroitness of the Royal chauffeur there would have been an almost head-on collision. As it was some paint and varnish were taken off the Royal car.

The Admiralty is reported to have decided upon the construction of a large naval dry dock at the confluence of the Wye and Severn I at Beachley, near Chepstow. To facilitate the construction of the dock, it is expected that a temporary bridge will be thrown across the Wye.

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Irish Unionist Alliance -- Viscount Midleton presiding -- the chairman made a statement, after which the committee passed a resolution conveying to Sir James and Lady Stronge and Mrs. Stronge their sincere condolence in their bereavement in the death in action, of Captain Stronge.

The French military authorities have informed the American Commander-in-Chief, General Pershing, that the Kaiser has promised a reward of 15 and three weeks' leave to the first German who captures an American. The information is furnished by German prisoners, who state that the offer has been made in general orders.

Addressing a meeting of Yorkshire farmers on Saturday, Lord Chaplin condemned Lord Rhondda's meat prices policy as a lunatic policy which would result in the loss of nearly thirty thousand tons of meat by the slaughter of a quarter of a million immature cattle at a time when there never was more grass in the country.

In the matter of the Second Chamber Conference Lord Burnham has consented to fill the place of the Earl of Donaghmore, who finds himself unable to serve. It has been throughout intended that the Labour party should be represented at the Conference, and the acceptance of Mr. Walter Hudson, M.P., has now been received.

An accident, resulting in the death of five persons, occurred on the Grand Trunk line at Vars Crossing, near Ottawa, when an express train crashed into a motor car. The killed were the Rev. Dr. John Mavety, pastor of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, Ottawa; Mr. and Mrs. John Orr and daughter, and Mrs. Horton Hodgson, of Carlsbad Springs.

The War Office is seeking 10,000 women by Oct. 31, and a further 10,000 in the ensuing month, for the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps, enrolling to be done by the local employment exchanges, and free train facilities being afforded to applicants more than five miles distant. The ages are eighteen for home service, and twenty-five for overseas.

At Gortin Petty Sessions Robert Hamilton, saddler, Plumbridge, was charged with failing to save one-eighth of his total flax crop for seed purposes. Defendant saved five perches instead of thirty-two. A fine of 1 with costs was imposed. Francis Murphy, Ednafox, was charged with a similar offence,, and, pleading ignorance of the Order, was fined in a similar sum.

At a conference of chairmen and secretaries of all local War Savings Committees, Sir Robert Kindersley stated that there were now in existence 1,511 local War Savings Committees, and 35,563 War Savings Associations, containing an aggregate membership of four million people, saving money week by week, and investing that money in war saving certificates.

No fewer than 319 Norwegian ships, of a total tonnage of 515,000, have been sunk by submarines, says the Norwegian "Veritas' Bureau. The "Daily Mail" urges the Admiralty to publish full statistics of ships missing "without trace," which have multiplied in recent months in a fashion which would show a yet more brutal policy of murder by enemy submarines.

The annual meeting of the Newry Protestant Working Men's Club was recently held in the club premises, Orange Hall, Downshire Road, Newry -- Mr. J. Moore Boyle, solicitor, presiding over a large attendance. Mr. James Irvine, acting honorary secretary and treasurer, submitted a report which showed an increase in membership, and that the club was in good financial standing. Mr. Robert Kerr was unanimously elected president of the club for the ensuing year. Mr. R. J. M'Combe was re-elected honorary secretary, a position which he has filled with satisfaction to the club since its formation. Mr. J. A. C. Rowland was appointed honorary treasurer. The following were elected the committee -- Messrs. E. W. Flack (chairman), W. Clugston, William Orr. and A. H. Mann.

A magistrate at Carrickbeg (Carrick-on-Suir) Sessions, Mr. J. E. Grubb, refused to sign the spirit licence certificates on the ground that he was a temperance advocate.

The late Mr. P. M'Gilligan, J.P., Castlerock, Londonderry, formerly M.P. for South Fermanagh, left personal estate in the United Kingdom valued at 16,517 14s 6d, of which 3,884 14s 6d is in England.

While plucking the fruit from a pear tree in his orchard, Mr. Joseph Reilly, Culkeeran, Moy, slipped and fell a considerable distance. He sustained very serious injuries, and was attended to by Dr. F. C. Wright, Moy.

The Exchequer returns from 1st April to 15th September, 1917, show -- Receipts, 229,932,258; expenditure, 1,214,447,166. In the corresponding period last year the receipts were -- 145,863,946; expenditure, 818,855,415.

Stanley Davies (thirty-one), head chemist at Messrs. Gilbertson's Steel Works, Pontardawe, Swansea Valley, fell into a ladle containing forty tons of molten metal, and was instantly killed. He was a well-known South Wales footballer.

At a concert held at Newcastle, Co. Down, Captain Weldon announced that as a result of entertainments promoted by the Royal Irish Rifles the sum of 240 9s 1d, to be devoted to the U.V.F. and Limbless Soldiers' Hospitals, had been realised.

The Earl of Meath, on account of advancing years and the multiplicity of other engagements, has resigned the presidency of the Church Army, and Mr. Pike Pease, M.P., Assistant Postmaster-General, has been unanimously elected president in his place.

Major Dundas Grant, consulting surgeon to the Central London Nose, Throat, and Ear Hospital, has been appointed chairman of the special Aural Board which has been set up by the Pensions Ministry for the purpose of dealing with the cases of deaf discharged soldiers.

At Ballyclare Cattle Market Mr. Samuel Stevenson, flesher, Ballyclare, purchased a fat bull at 60. The animal, which was in prime condition, scaled seventeen hundredweight odd, and was the property of a local farmer (Mr. John Wharry). It had obtained several first prizes at county shows.

The United States war expenditure is put at 10,000,000 a day, and the total up to July 1 next is expected to reach 3,657,645,617, of which 1,400,000,000 represents loans to Allies. The cost to all other belligerents up to last month is set down at 19,209,480,000. France has already spent at least 3,400,000,000.

Sir Arthur Liberty, founder of the well-known Regent Street firm, left 343,505. In his will he stated he had not made any charitable bequests, "as I consider that during my life and at my death the State will appropriate an undue proportion, of my estate, which has been acquired by personal effort and thrift."

At Northampton market prices for pigs advanced from 2s to 3s 6d a score, making up to 27s. Many butchers, owing to the scarcity, gave prices in excess of those fixed by the Food Controller, and there was a strong demand that live weight prices should be fixed. A fat sow was sold for 38 10s, a record for the market.

South Wales Miners' Federation Council received on Saturday the report of the members who, with the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, waited upon the Chancellor of the Exchequer regarding the levying of income tax on wages. The Chancellor's reply was considered unsatisfactory, and it was resolved to ask him to receive a deputation of the South Wales Miners' Federation.

Mrs. Hunter Sharp, wife of the Hon. Hunter Sharp, American Consul in Belfast, entertained a number of ladies in the Avenue Hotel to tea. They met to appoint lady officers in connection with the American Red Cross, to entertain and look after American wounded soldiers who may be in Belfast in the days to come. A committee of some twenty-two ladies has been formed; most are American-born and a few British, with special interest in our American Allies, and all reside in Belfast or the neighbourhood. Mrs. Hunter Sharp is chairman of the committee, and she will be assisted by Mrs. J. C. White (wife of ex-High Sheriff White, of Belfast) as hon treasurer, and Mrs. Simonton, an American lady, as hon. secretary.

In connection with France's Bay collection in Canada the London committee of the French Red Cross has received a gift of 20,000.

Gotthold Prusse, one of the designers of the mercantile submarine Deutschland, who came to Baltimore in the Deutschland's first voyage, has committed suicide.

Refugees to Stockholm from Petrograd state that a few days after the, fall of Riga M. Kerensky found time to re-marry, his bride being Mdlle. Timmet, a clever young actress.

Sir Robert Liddell has received from Mr. William Belford, Ballycastle, the sum of 1,114 11s 1d, being the proceeds of a fete and bazaar held in Ballycastle, in aid of the U.V.F. Patriotic Fund.

Captain M. C. C. Harrison, R. I. Regiment, who has escaped from Germany after eleven months' efforts to do so, and incurring solitary confinement for the attempts which proved futile, is a son of Mr. R. F. Harrison, K.C., Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin.

The Queen and Princess Mary visited Coventry on Tuesday, and got a popular and loyal reception, numerous presentations being made, and war factories, with their necessary hostel and housing colony, inspected. A gigantic "bouquet of vegetables" was accepted by her Majesty.

Edinburgh Town Council have agreed that the freedom of the city should be conferred on Mr. Page, the American Ambassador, in recognition of his representative position, his public gifts, and of his services in promoting friendship and good feeling between the peoples of this country and the United States.

Speaking at a meeting in London for the purpose of forming an association for discharged Australian soldiers, Colonel Springforth, of the Australian Army Medical Corps, said of the Australians in the war no fewer than 6,000 had married on this side. A large number of these meant to settle in Australia.

At Glasgow the King held an investiture in the presence of some 80,000 people, 143 military decorations being bestowed. During his visit his Majesty interviewed a Belfast veteran, Robert Blatchford, a plater of seventy-two years of age, who, as an artillery bandsman, played before Queen Victoria and King Edward, once before the latter at the opening of the Lagan Bridge, Belfast.

The output of coal in Ireland in 1916 wan 89,833 tons, as compared with 85,578 in 1915; minerals from mines, 83,783 tons, as against 101,511 tons in 1915; minerals from quarries reached 928,017 tons, as against 1,139,436. There were 1,095 tons of bog ore turned out, according to a report from the Chief Inspector of Mines. The number employed in metalliferous mines in Ireland was 594, in quarries 2,559. Of quarries, 211 were not worked during 1916.

The Board of Trinity College, Dublin, have appointed, on the unanimous nomination of the Divinity School Council, the Rev. Hugh Alan M'Neill, D.D., to the Regius Professorship of Divinity, vacated by the death of the late Rev. Dr. Gwynn. The new professor is a graduate of Cambridge. He was examining chaplain to the Bishop of Worcester 1902-5, to the Bishop of Birmingham 1905-11, and to the Bishop of Oxford in 1911. He was appointed a temporary chaplain to the Forces in 1916.

A temporary postman named G. A. Allingham, who was sentenced at Marylebone Police Court to nine months' hard labour for thefts said to extend over twelve months, and ordered to pay 5 5s costs arid make good the money stolen, was earning 36s a week. His wife and two of his children were earning 2 10s a week each, so that the total income of the family, said counsel for the Postmaster-General, was between 450 and 500 a year. The Magistrate -- And I suppose no income tax is paid.

Whether tea is a beverage was the question raised in a Lurgan Realm Act case, in which a man ordered dinner at the Shankill Buildings Restaurant, Mrs. A. Patton, manageress, and was charged 2s, 9d of which was for tea. For the prosecution it was argued that the tea was portion of the meal and for the defence that it was a beverage within the meaning of the Order. Mr. Bell, R.M., in dismissing the summons, said if it was not a beverage a register should be kept of meals costing more than 1s 3d, but if it was there was no necessity to do so.




It is related that, at the supreme moment during the Battle of Waterloo, when the Duke of Wellington was left absolutely alone, every aide-de-camp having gone his way, each with his message, a stranger rode up to the Duke. "Can I be of any use, sir?" he asked. The Duke looked at him an instant, then unhesitatingly answered -- "Yes. Take this pencil note to the commanding officer," pointing to a regiment in the thick of the fight. The stranger took the note and galloped away with it. He delivered it, but what happened to him no man knows. The Duke always declared that to be one of the most gallant deeds that had ever come under his notice. It was done without prospect of acknowledgment or reward, and neither attended his accomplishment.


If when King George V. last visited Calcutta, he had not set his face against the proposition he would have been weighed in gold, and the amount required to make him tip the scales would have been distributed among the poor. This is a very ancient custom that still prevails in many Eastern lands. A Maharajah who was crowned not so long ago seated himself on one of the gold pans of the balance, while into the other was thrown gold coin until royalty rose in the scales. The Maharajah by an old unwritten law did not become legally chief until he had been weighed in this manner. In olden times the custom prevailed of throwing the money into the air and letting the people scramble for what ever missed the scales, but this resulted in disorder and frequent loss of life, and, moreover, defeated the object in view, as the strong and well-fed usually prevailed over those more in need of the benefit. After this commission of functionaries was named to divide the gold among the poor of the country districts after the monarch had been weighed. The custom of weighing monarchs is not so extravagant as it may appear to be. In the case of George V. it was calculated that one hundred thousand dollars in gold would be devoted to the weighing and the expenses of the entertainment; but that is not to say that the expense was necessarily determined by the bulk of the monarch, as much more may be added to the fund as any number of persons desire to give. However, the native Indian potentates are usually heavy enough to satisfy all demands.


Scientists have been trying lately to find what the smallest particle of matter is. Take a lump of sugar and break it. You will then have a number of little grains. Then take a single grain and crush it, and you will still have many minute particles of sugar. Scientists have kept on dividing and subdividing these particles until they are only visible in the strongest microscope, and yet each minute particle is built up of still smaller ones. This has been done with many substances, and always the same result has been reached, until Professor Millikan, of Chicago University, actually caught and measured the electron a few years ago, and this is how it came about. The chemists finally decided the smallest particle was the atom, and that different kinds of atoms put together in different ways formed different substances. Nearly eighty kinds of elements have been found in the earth, each having its own kind of atom. For fifty years it was never doubted but that the atom was the smallest particle of matter, and it was estimated it would take several thousand in a row to make a speck visible in the most powerful microscope. But in the last twenty-five years many things have been found to prove that the atom itself may be divided, and that each one is made up of much smaller particles charged with minute charges of electricity. These are the electrons, and they are two thousand times smaller than an atom of hydrogen gas, which is the smallest atom known. It doesn't seem likely that the electron will ever be divided on account of its electric charge, so we believe it is the smallest particle possible. One great fact to remember is this -- Although the atoms of the different elements gold, lead, sulphur, oxygen, &c., are all different, it has been proved that the electrons are all the same. That is quite important, for then all things that we know about must be built up of these particles in different combinations. Then, too, a current of electricity in a wire is nothing more than a current of these particles which move quite freely on account of their small size. It seems that many of the facts of the future may depend on the electron, and even now, as electricity, it is man's most obedient servant, though its size is small.



A venerable and worthy figure has been removed from the life of Belfast in the death, which took place on. Saturday morning, of Mr. Thomas Nesbitt, of 71, Fitzwilliam Street. Mr. Nesbitt, who had passed the stage of four score years, was a native of Downpatrick, and as a young man came to Belfast, where he established an extensive business of master painter and decorator in Clifton Street. After a successful career he retired some twenty years ago, but still continued to lead a busy and active life. He devoted a large amount of his leisure time to the interests of the Masonic body, his life-work in connection with which was monumental. The deceased took a deep interest in public affairs. He was a member of the Citizens' Association for a number of years, and acted as chairman of the Windsor Ward. A member of the Presbyterian Church, in later life he worshipped with the Fisherwick congregation. Earlier his connection with the old Great George's Street Church went back to the pastorate of Rev. T. Toye. The late Mr. Nesbitt was a gentleman of kindly and unassuming disposition, of cultured tastes, and of the most sterling integrity. A widely-read man, he was quite an authority on the works of many of the classical authors, and much of his leisure time was devoted to pursuits in which the cultured mind revels. Of the late gentleman's family but two of the daughters survive, the eldest being the wife of Mr. E. Henry, of the Belfast Water Office, and the youngest of Mr. F. Wynne, of the linen trade. With the bereaved circle of relatives the deepest sympathy will be felt in a loss that is indeed irreparable.



An interesting wedding was solemnised in Drumbo Presbyterian Church on 12th inst., when Captain Campbell M'Neill M'Cormack, M.C., R.A.M.C., youngest son of Mr. William M'Carmack, Hillhall House, Lisburn, and Miss Ella Todd Warnock (of Fernlea, Eastleigh Drive, Belfast), only surviving daughter of the late Rev. William James Warnock, B.A., B.D., formerly minister of Drumbo, and of Kroonstad, South Africa, were married in the presence of a church full to the doors of relatives, friends, and other well-wishers of the contracting parties. Captain M'Cormack was one of the original British Expeditionary Force, and was awarded the Military Cross for gallantry under enemy fire. The officiating clergymen were Rev. James Tolland, Ormiston Church, Belfast; Rev. William M'Nutt, B.A., Hillhall; and Rev. Joseph Cordner, B.D., Drumbo. The bride was given away by her uncle, Mr. Christopher Todd. The bridesmaids were Miss Campbell and Miss Crail (cousin of the bride). Mr. Hugh M'Cormack, the bridegroom's brother, acted as best man. Miss Campbell, L.R.A.M., Trench House, who presided at the organ, played a wedding march as the parties were leaving the church after signing the register. Subsequently a reception was held at the residence of the bride's aunt, Mrs. Crail, Fernlea, Eastleigh Drive, Strandtown, Belfast. Later in the day the happy pair left for their honeymoon, which is to be spent at Mallaranny, County Mayo, and Recess, County Galway.



The remains of the late Mr. George Corry, of 11, Chlorine Gardens, were interred on Tuesday in the City Cemetery. The funeral was of a private nature, and was attended only by deceased's relatives and intimate friends. Rev. W. Colquhoun officiated at the grave. Mr. Corry was for many years manager of the Corporation Gas Stove Department, and was held in high esteem by all who knew him. Messrs. Melville & Co., Ltd., had charge of the funeral arrangements.

Rev. Dr. Maconaghie preached in Fitzroy Avenue Church last Sabbath evening, and at the close of the service Rev. W. Colquhoun said he wished to draw the attention of the congregation to a sudden death in their membership during the past week. Mr. George Corry had been present with them at their Communion service the previous Sabbath. Yesterday morning he passed into the perfect fellowship of the Church above. It was very solemn to think that in less than a week after he had joined with them in taking into his hands the emblems of the Lord's broken body he should be summoned to look into the Lord's living face, and he himself changed into the same image, from glory unto glory. Such a sudden call reminded them of the thin partition that always divided this temporal life from the life unseen and eternal. Up till last Monday Mr. Corry appeared, even to his most intimate friends, in perfect health; but he had been suffering from an internal trouble that required an operation, and it was confidently hoped this would not only give him relief, but good health for many years. It had been otherwise ordered by the love and wisdom of their Heavenly Father, who marks even the sparrow's fall. Notwithstanding all that skilful surgery and careful nursing could do he passed peacefully on Saturday morning -- into the everlasting rest. He will be greatly missed. He had been a zealous and useful worker in their mission district, and the earnest addresses he delivered would be, recalled by many now that his tongue was silent in death. And yet they felt assured if the mists that hid the future were only to lift for a moment, they would see his eager, busy life unbroken, still going on, but lifted up to that higher plane where rest and work are one, for they "rest from their labours" and yet "serve Him day and night in His temple," After singing the hymn "Peace, perfect peace," Dr. Maconaghie closed the service with prayer and the benediction.



Series of Decorations.

The following war decorations have been granted for gallantry on the field:--


Captain James M'Kee, Royal Irish Rifles, a son of the late Mr. Samuel M'Kee, Parkville, Cyprus Park, Belfast. He lost a leg in the recent fighting, and is now undergoing treatment in the Ulster Orthopaedic Hospital.

Major (acting Lieutenant-Colonel) Thomas Robert Alexander Stannus (Reserve of Officers, Leinster Regiment, Special Reserve), Leinster Regiment, who has succumbed to his wounds, was a brother of Mrs. Nicholson Pim, Ogle's Grove, Hillsborough, and a cousin of Miss Stannus, the Manor House, Lisburn. He was mentioned in Sir Douglas Haig's despatch last May, and wore the Croix de Chevalier, Legion of Honour.


Temporary Captain Gordon Miller Forde, M.C., Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, a son of Rev. Canon Forde, Finlagan Rectory, Ballykelly, Londonderry.

Temporary Second-Lieutenant (acting Captain) Richard Cecil Rutledge Kane, M.C., Royal Irish Rifles, a son of the late Rev. Dr. Kane, rector of Christ Church, Belfast, and Grand Master of the County of Belfast Grand Orange Lodge.


Temporary Lieutenant James W. Charlton, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, eldest son of Mr. J. H. Charlton, Enniskillen, and a nephew of Miss Charlton, Walbrook, Omagh.

Temporary Captain Charles Dundee, M.B., R.A.M.C., younger son of Dr. Charles Dundee, J.P., Ballycarry. He was recently reported seriously wounded.

Temporary Second-Lieutenant Alex. W. F. Gilmore, Royal Irish Rifles, a son of Mr. Gilmore, Main Street, Bailieborough, Co. Cavan. Prior to the war he was on the clerical staff bead office of the Northern Bank in Belfast.

Temporary Second-Lieutenant John H. Glendinning, Royal Irish Rifles, youngest son of the Right Hon. R. G. Glendinning, D.L., Glengyle, Windsor Avenue, Belfast.

Lieutenant George L. Hastings, Dragoon Guards, son of Mr. and Mrs. G. Hastings, formerly of Ballymena, and now of Hong Kong.

Lieutenant George York Henderson, Royal Irish Rifles, fourth son of the late Sir James Henderson, D.L., Belfast. He held the rank of captain in the Army Service Corps, but in order to get into the fighting line he subsequently transferred to a battalion of the Royal Irish Rifles.

Temporary Second-Lieutenant Thomas Houston, Royal Irish Fusiliers, younger son of Mr. Thomas Houston, 23, Cyprus Gardens, Belfast. He enlisted in the "Pals" battalion of the Dublin Fusiliers at the outbreak of the war.

Captain Chas. Dickson, R.A.M.C., a son of Mr. J. M. Dickson, 28, Wellington Park, Belfast,

Second-Lieutenant (temporary Lieutenant) Arthur W. F. Glenny, A.S.C. and R.F.C., son of Mr. J. S. Glenny, J.P.) Newry.

Temporary Captain William M. Knight, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, son of Mr. George Knight, Clerk of the Crown and Peace for County Meath, and a brother of Mr. M. E. Knight, solicitor, Clones. He is a solicitor by profession, practising at Lisnaskea, County Fermanagh.

Second-Lieutenant (temporary Captain) John H. C. Lawlor, Royal Munster Fusiliers, eldest son of Mr. Henry C. Lawlor, M.R.I.A., Killyfaddy, Windsor Avenue, Belfast.

Second-Lieutenant William J. Lyness, Royal Irish Rifles, fourth son of Mr. W. J. Lyness, Tullyard House, Moira, County Down.

Temporary Lieutenant Edward L. Marshall, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, son of Mr. A. 0. Marshall, of the firm of Messrs. Wm. Marshall & Co., Ltd., Victoria Street, Belfast, and also of Craigavad.

Second-Lieutenant Douglas C. M'Culloch, R.F.A., Special Reserve, son of the Rev. W. M'Culloch, Springs, Transvaal, and a nephew of Miss M'Culloch, principal of the Irish Society's Girls' School at Coleraine.

Temporary Second-Lieutenant James M'Mechan, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, son of Mr. H. M'Mechan, Ballee, Downpatrick.

Temporary Second-Lieutenant Walter Notley, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, younger son of Mr. R. Notley, Aughamore House, Dromore, County Leitrim.

Temporary Second-Lieutenant Andrew Patterson, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, son of Mr. Robert Patterson, Culdrum, Aghadowey.

Temporary Captain Samuel Ernest Picken, M.B., R.A.M.C., son of the late Dr. James Picken, Hazelbank, Randalstown, and Mrs. Picken, Richmond, Antrim Road, Belfast.

Temporary Captain William B. G. Stuart, Royal Irish Rifles, son of Mr. William Stuart, Mount Earl, Ballymena.

Temporary Second-Lieutenant Albert Edward Todd, Royal Irish Rifles, youngest son of Mr. John Todd, J.P., Clarinda, Fortwilliam Park, Belfast.

Temporary Second-Lieutenant Victor Unsworth, Royal Irish Rifles, second and only son of Mr. W. T. Unsworth, Taymouth, Kirliston Drive, Belfast.

8/12905 Company Sergeant-Major Cumberland Hill, Royal Irish Rifles, Belfast.

15/11687 Company Sergeant-Major John Henry Kelly, Royal Irish Rifles, Belfast.

8/13113 Company Sergeant-Major William Moffatt, Royal Irish Rifles, Belfast.

10/16093 Company Sergeant-Major Robert Selkirk Whelan, Royal Irish Rifles, son of Mr. J. E. Whelan, Ravenhill Avenue, Belfast.


8887 Corporal D. Lowe, Royal Irish Rifles (Downpatrick).

1176 Trooper (A./Cpl of Horse) R. J. Hamill, Household Cavalry, (Antrim).


41302 Pte. P. Davidson, R. Innis. Fus., Belfast.

2272 Pte. P. Devlin, Connaught Rangers, Belfast.

43629 Sergt. W. Dunlop, R.F.A., Londonderry.

7/1640 Pte. H. Magennis, Leinster Regt., Belfast.

15434 L.-Cpl. R. J. M'Candless, R.I. Fus., Belfast.

DM2/172030 Pte. J. M'Connell, A.S.C., Belfast.

21411 Pte. E. M'Cready, R.I. Fus., Belfast.

14863 L.-Cpl. F. M'Cudden, R.D. Fus., Coalisland.

20962 Cpl. R. M'Curley, R.I. Fus., Belfast.

3286 Pte. T. J. Norney, R. Innis. Fus., Belfast.

61896 Sergt. Worr, R.F.A., Belfast.

3588 Pte. W. Scallion, R.I.R., Kilrea.

33568 Pte. H. E. Todd, York R., Belfast.

26325 Pte. A. Weatherall, R. Innis. Fus., Belfast.



The death occurred at his residence, Rathmona, Whiteabbey, on Sabbath, of Mr. Wm. Caithness, managing director of the Whiteabbey Flax Spinning Co., Ltd. When deceased left school he served his apprenticeship in the spinning mill, and gradually worked his way through the various departments. Subsequently he became managing director of the Belfast Flax Spinning and Weaving Co., Ltd., which position be held for ten years. He then joined the Blackstaff Flax Spinning and Weaving Co., Ltd., in a similar capacity, and, having remained there for sixteen years, he returned to the Whiteabbey firm as managing director. A resident of Whiteabbey from his boyhood, the late Mr. Caithness took a deep and practical interest in the development and progress of the village. For a time he was a member of Rural District Council, and only relinquished that office on his health breaking down. Deceased was a member of Whiteabbey Presbyterian Church, where he worshipped for many years. He leaves a widow and two sons; while his brother, Mr. James Caithness, is a school teacher, residing in the village. Much sympathy will be extended to the sorrowing relatives in their bereavement.

On Tuesday afternoon the remains of the deceased were removed from his late residence, Rathmona, Whiteabbey, for interment in the new burying-ground, Carnmoney. The funeral cortege was a very impressive one; the chief mourners were -- Messrs. William and Jack Caithness (sons); Mr. James Caithness (brother), and Mr. Getty, jun, (nephew). Both at the house and at the grave Divine service was conducted by the Rev. W. B. M'Murray, M.A., Whiteabbey. The funeral arrangements were in the hands of Messers. Melville & Co., Ltd., Belfast, and were admirably carried out.



At a meeting of Londonderry Corporation, a letter was read from Major-General Nugent, officer commanding the Ulster Division, offering to the city on behalf of the division the following trophies, part of the booty captured by the division in the battle of Messines -- One 77mm. field gun, one light minewerfer, one granatenwerfer. Major-General Nugent added that he understood several individual units of the division proposed presenting to the city other trophies captured by them on the same date; but he hoped those enumerated would be regarded as presented by the division as a whole, and accepted by the citizens as mementoes of a brilliant success in which the division took no mean part, acquitting themselves like men. The gifts were gratefully accepted.



Five Lives Lost.

The steamer Ravensworth, which went down off the Copelands, Co. Down, during a collision with a Belfast collier oh Saturday night, was laden with coal from South Wales, and sank in eight minutes after the collision, the crew having barely time to scramble into a boat. The five missing men include two engineers and a steward. One of the crew, named Taylor, of Cork, sustained a dislocated shoulder. The twelve survivors, including the captain and mate, were brought to Belfast. Thomas M'Coy, a Cardiff man, said it was his knife saved their lives. He cut the falls of the boat with it, as he was unable to unhook them. He was up to the neck in water at the time. He was in his bunk when the crash came and made a big hole in the vessel. He got on deck, and saw the boat sinking. She rolled over and back, and then went down. One of the men lost was a Belfast man. "He had been at the battle of Jutland, and had to come home to get drowned."


Merchant Seamen and Income Tax.

There have been many manifestations of dissatisfaction on the part of the officers of the merchant service in respect to the very practical concession of the Government in the matter of the payment of income tax. This means that the officers of our merchant ships now enjoy the same privileges in respect to reduced rates of income tax as in the case of officers serving in the navy and army. The Imperial Merchant Service Guild have been officially informed that the concession made is not retrospective, but applies to the "current income tax year" -- that is, the year beginning on the 6th April last, and it applies to those who serve for not less than three months aa master or a member of the crew of any ship or fishing boat.


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The Witness - Friday, 28 September 1917


CRAIG--WALLACE -- September 19, at Oldpark Presbyterian Church, Belfast, by Rev. R. T. Megaw, LL.D., Gilbert Logan, third son of the late John Craig, formerly of Bellarena, Co. Derry, to Jane Boyde, second daughter of the late William Wallace, formerly of Crossreagh, Portrush, (Pretoria House, King's Road, Whitehead, 9th Oct.)


CLARKE -- September 25, 1917, at the Manse, Tipperary, Elizabeth, widow of the Rev. William Clarke, B.A., Trinity Church, Bangor, ex-Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. Funeral private.

PETTIGREW -- September 20, 1917, at his grandfather's residence, Ballymenoch, Holywood, Co. Down, Samuel, eldest son of David H. and Ruth Pettigrew. Interred in family burying-ground, Holywood, on Sunday, 23rd September, 1917. Deeply regretted. DAVID and RUTH PETTIGREW.

SMYTH -- September 20, 1917, at her residence, Strathfoyle, Strabane, Annie, widow of the late Robert Smyth, J.P., Strabane. Funeral private. No flowers.

BAIRD -- September 24, at his residence, Ganaway, Ballywalter, Hugh Baird.

FITZSIMMONS -- September 23, at her residence, 80, Deramore Avenue, Henrietta (Hennie), the only beloved daughter of A. Henry and Annie Fitzsimmons.

GORDON -- September 24, at her residence, Cooey, Tynan, Mary, widow of the late James Gordon.

HARPER -- September 20, at his residence, 1A, Auburn Terrace, Donaghadee, James Harper, the beloved husband of Eliza Harper.

JAMISON -- September 21, at her brother's residency, The Bridge House, Kilrea, Sarah, daughter of the late Daniel Jamison, Duncairn Terrace, Belfast.

JEFFERS -- September 25, at Cambridge Villas, Station Road, Sydenham, Louisa Ellen, youngest and dearly-beloved daughter of Eliza and Edward Jeffers (late Station Officer, H.M. Coastguards, Marino).

MACK -- September 26, at her son's residence, 37, Victoria Road, Larne, Margaret A. Mack, relict of the late Wm. Mack, photographer, Coleraine.

M'CAUSLAND -- September 21, at Coole Abbey, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Maria, wife of Orr M'Causland, J.P.

M'KAY -- September 24, at Secon, Ballymoney, John M'Kay, aged 86 years.

NEWELL -- September 23, Katharine (Kitty), youngest daughter of the late William and Mary Newell.

PATTY -- September 21, at her residence, Kirkcubbin, Mary Patty.

REFAUSSE -- September 23, at her residence, Pond Park, Lisburn, May, second and dearly-beloved daughter of Mary and the late Robert Refausse.

RODGERS -- September 21, 1917, at his residence, Silverstream, Greenisland, William James Rodgers, aged 72 years.

SHAW -- September 20, at Upper Balloo, Bangor, William Shaw, aged 77 years.

SHEPHERD -- September 20, at his residence, Ballyknocker, Saintfield, Henry Shepherd, aged 81 years.

YOUNG -- September 21, at Helen's Bay, the infant son of Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Young.

In Memoriam

MARTIN -- September 28, 1894, at his residence, "Eglintoun," Antrim Road, Belfast, the Rev. James Martin, first minister of Eglinton Street Presbyterian Church. In loving memory. F.P.H.; J.C.M.M.



Sir Edward Carson, accompanied by Mr. Ronald M'Neill, M.P., has returned from a visit to the front.

The death has occurred of Mr. Rufus Daniel Puller, aged 56, senior partner in the well-known firm of Pullar & Sons, dyers, Perth.

Some 4,000 New York pier workers have struck on the ground that one of their number was discharged for leaving the wharf to get a drink.

Civilian British prisoners at Ruhleben have such a successful horticultural society that they have held a two days' show of plants and flowers.

Belfast Corporation have resolved to grant a war bonus of 25 (inclusive of my bonuses already granted) to all officials in receipt of salaries up to 400 a year.

The death of the Queen of Bulgaria is said to have brought matters to a crisis between King Ferdinand and Prince Boris, who has long been at variance with his lather.

It is estimated that this year's crops in Western Canada will reach a total value of 575,000,000 dollars, which would be in excess of that received for the famous 1915 output.

Arrangements have been made whereby in future every officer and seaman of a ship lost by war risk is entitled to one month's wages, or wages up to arrivaI in the United Kingdom, whichever is greater.

The Vigilance Committee of the Belfast Engineers' Society have demanded a 50 per cent. increase in wages; also resolving to join up with other districts in demanding a shorter working day and week.

The Military Medal has been awarded to Private W. Workman, R.I.R., of Kilraughts, Ballymoney, for killing six and wounding eight Germans with a machine gun, which they endeavoured and failed to capture.

A White Paper gives a list of 267 Commissions and Committees "set up to deal with public questions arising out of the war." Of this number thirty-five have ceased to exist, leaving a total of 232 still in operation.

The number of animals shipped from the port of Belfast during the week ending the 22nd September, 1917, was -- 4,219 cattle, 1,794 sheep, 14 horses. For corresponding week last year -- 3,241 cattle, 1,011 sheep, 205 swine, 32 horses.

Rubina Smith, aged 18, of Rochdale, was fined 5 for having a box of matches in her possession in a high explosive factory. She had playfully snatched the matches from her young man and put them in her pocket, and forgotten she had them there.

A Department of Agriculture return shows that the total exports of cattle from Ireland in 1916 were the highest during the past twelve years, excepting 1913 and 1914. The number of cattle of all kinds shipped to Great Britain in 1916 was 890,124, an increase of 48,537 on 1915.

At Woking Elizabeth Midhurst, labourer's wife, was fined 3 for obtaining sugar by false pretences. Although she had only two currant bushes in her garden, she applied for half a hundredweight of sugar and used the amount allocated to her to preserve fruit which she purchased.

The Norwegian, Alfred Hagn, who was tried in London by general court-martial on August 27 and 28 last, on charges of espionage on behalf of Germany, was found guilty and sentenced to death. The sentence was duly confirmed, but was subsequently commuted to one of penal servitude for life.

Workers in the shipbuilding and engineering trades are to apply next month for an increase in wages equal to the advance in the cost of living, which is 80 per cent. The application is for one of the largest increases ever submitted by workmen. In these trades a 15s a week war bonus has already been given.

Boot manufacturers will shortly be asked to put a scheme into operation for the production of half a million pairs of standard boots weekly up to Christmas, and half that amount next year. The boot will be of solid leather, but it is not thought the prices will be much lower than those now prevailing.

Miss R. C. M'Adams, the nurse at the Ontario Military Hospital, Orpington, who has been returned as a member of the Alberta Parliament, as a result of the election amongst soldiers and nurses from that Province serving on both sides of the English Channel, is an Irish lady. Her father was born in Ulster.

At a farmers' meeting in Carnmoney, Belfast, it was stated that tow was now sold for as much as 50 per ton. It was decided that flax-growers should take the tow from the mills and arrange to dispose of it, and Mr. G. Pullen, mill-owner, suggested that there should be an open market for unscutched tow.

Miss Dorothy C. Morgan, daughter of Captain G. B. Morgan, Headquarters Staff, I.C., hotel proprietor, Rostrevor, Bundoran, and Belfast, has been appointed lady inspector under the Army and Navy Canteen Board, and is the first lady to hold such a post in Ireland. Her headquarters will be the Curragh.

The report of the Royal Patriotic Fund Committee states that about 1,000 to 1,200 cases were dealt with weekly in Belfast. For all Ireland the total receipts were 22,329, and the total expenditure 19,176, leaving a balance in hand of 3,153. Cork alone shows a balance on the wrong side. Belfast received from the Statutory Committee 13,000.

Professor D. L. Savory, of Queen's University, Belfast, has received an appointment in the intelligence department of the Admiralty. He is the author of several university text books, and is held in high regard for his wide and cultured scholarship. He was appointed professor of the French language and Romance philology at Queen's University in 1909.

Colonel Stewart, commanding the 27th Recruiting Area, at Coleraine, distributed 500 certificates of honour to wives, parents, and other relatives of soldiers and sailors of the district. Mr. W. W. Hill, Chairman Urban Council, who presided, said Coleraine, with 8,000 inhabitants, had given over 1,000 men to the colours, and raised over 5,000 for war objects.

Miss Maude Royden, pupil assistant to Dr. Fort Newton, officiated on Sabbath evening at a service of infant Baptism at the City Temple, London. Four infants were baptised. This is believed to be the first occasion on which a woman has administered this rite at any of the London Nonconformist Churches. Miss Hoyden is a member of the Church of England.

At the first meeting of the Provisional Council of the "National Party," a resolution was passed resolving that no person should become a member or contribute to the funds unless by law a British citizen. Brig.-Gen. H. Page Croft, M.P., said the new party was out for the nation rather than the class for victory and for honesty. It embraced all that was best in Unionist, Liberal, and Labour parties.

Dr. Hetherington, R.M.S., Derry District Lunatic Asylum, in his annual report, records agreement with those who attribute the general decrease in lunacy largely to the effects of the war "which has thrown many who were previously unoccupied into active work, and turned their thoughts into new channels, thus bringing out qualities that were previously latent."

Mr. Philip Laszlo de Lombos, M.V.O., the well-known Court painter, has been interned as the result of an order issued by the Home Secretary. As a painter he enjoyed an International reputation, and among his best-known works are portraits of Leo XIII., King Edward VII., Queen Alexandra, the King of Portugal, the Kaiser, the Austrian Emperor, and Mr. Theodore Roosevelt.

Cardinal Mercier, when going to the Cathedral at Malines, in Pontifical dress, was cheered by a crowd, but was hissed by a group of Flemish Activists. A riot took place, and the police interfered with drawn swords. Subsequently when the Cardinal was leaving the Cathedral the riot recommenced, and sticks and stones were freely used. Two Activists were seriously injured; several persons were arrested, and the police dispersed the mob.

At Killyleagh Castle on Saturday a beautiful silk Union Jack, with the name of the troop and the scout emblem worked upon it, the gift of Miss Moore, of Tullymanows, was presented to Colonel G. Rowan-Hamilton, D.L., as president of the 1st Killyleagh Troop Boy Scouts, in memory of the life service and death on the field of battle in France of his only son, Lieutenant Archibald Rowan-Hamilton, late of his Majesty's Irish Guards. An address was delivered by the Rev. J. R. M'Cleery, and the local Presbyterian Church choirs assisted in the musical service.

It is probable that the brewers will receive concessions which will enable them to brew lighter ale in sufficient bulk to present further shortage. A rumour is current in quarters usually well informed that, although it was generally understood, the Food Controller's regulations as to the restrictions on output of beer applied alike to the Three Kingdoms, Ireland, as usual, is again an exception. It is said that the Irish brewers have been granted the full 33½ per cent. increase, and, further, have been allowed to brew at 1,050deg. In the English country districts the increase has only been 20 per cent. and the gravity 1,036 deg.




Simple dyspepsia is that form of indigestion that is not caused by any lesion or malformation of the stomach or other digestive organs. People differ widely in the strength of their digestive apparatus, but most adults know something of the symptoms of simple dyspepsia. In fact, most people expect, and bear with resignation, an occasional attack of indigestion. It is when the attacks come too often and stay too long -- when the sufferer becomes a dyspeptic -- that he seeks relief. In a case where the usual home remedies for impaired digestion are no longer efficacious and the continual attacks begin to affect the general health, it is necessary to go to a good doctor and ask him to find the underlying cause of the trouble. There are many reasons for the failure of the digestive powers that lie quite beyond the scope of amateur diagnosis, with its dangerous accompaniment -- amateur dosing; although there are, of course, many other reasons that any intelligent person can search out for himself. Too many people become chronic dyspeptics because they will not learn to masticate properly, to refrain from hearty meals when they are tired, or to deny themselves articles of food that experience has shown to be indigestible. That form of dyspepsia is not in itself hard to cure, but those who suffer from it are very difficult to handle. They are likely to have their pet remedy -- a soda tablet or what not -- which often does good service for years, but is bound to fail in the end. Then nothing can be done for them unless they learn self-control. Sometimes -- indeed often -- the trouble is with the teeth, which have been neglected until they cannot properly chew the food. People who are worried and over-driven are almost sure to have weak digestion. That form of dyspepsia yields quickly to a good rest and tonic treatment. If that cannot be had, try a brief rest after eating. That is a wise economy for even the busiest people. Abdominal massage is good for toning up the muscles of the stomach. As for diet and medicine, the doctor in charge is the best judge, for no two cases are exactly alike.


Some cargoes sailors hate because they are dangerous to the ship; some because they endanger the comfort and safety of the crew. In the former class are all chemicals, whether these be enclosed in metal drums or not. Carbide of calcium, for instance, is the chemical from which acetylene gas is made. The gas is constantly given off, if the carbide is exposed to the air, forming a highly inflammable and explosive vapour. Many a good ship has gone down carrying the substance of which thousands of tons must be transported every year. Drums of nitric or sulphuric acid form another dangerous cargo. Hundreds of shipmasters would as soon fill the hold with dynamite as with this treacherous stuff. Yet the demand for these chemicals is most active, and scores of vessels on the high seas are engaged in this traffic. Not long since a Chilian ship put in at the Falkland Islands, leaking badly. Her cargo of acid drums was packed in chalk below decks. The acid had leaked through the drums and, mixed with the chalk, had formed carbonic acid gas. Because of the choking fumes, the crew could not go below decks at all. Moreover, the acid had attacked the iron framework of the ship, and was rapidly eating it away. Cotton is a deadly cargo, and ships carrying it must pay high insurance rates, at the same time being favoured with a slim passenger list. A single bale of cotton that may be partly saturated with oil is a veritable tinder box as it lies at the bottom of the hold. Somes lines advertise, "These ships carry no cotton." There are other cargoes that are often exceedingly unpleasant to crew and passengers. Ships in the South American trade are often made almost uninhabitable because of their cargoes of green coffee. The odour may not be unpleasant at first, but it steadily increases in pungency till it fills every nook and cranny of the ship. In damp weather it becomes especially strong, till the crew may be made actually ill by it. Sugar-carrying vessels are also trying abodes, especially in hot weather. The odour given off by two or three hundred tons of cane sugar in the hold is so sweet and sickish that it becomes impossible to get the taste out of one's mouth. The sailors crave vinegar, or lemon juice -- or anything sour.



It is with deep regret that we record the death of Mrs. Robert Smyth, Strathfoyle, Strabane, widow of the late Mr. Robert Smyth, J.P., a gentleman widely known and honoured in the North-West, and a devoted member of the Presbyterian Church. Her Christian character, her many acts of kindness and generosity, her benevolent sympathy with religious and social endeavour movements won her the admiration and gratitude of all sections of the community. With her two daughters# one of whom is Mrs. W. H. Cavendish, and her two sons, Mr. Robt. H. Smyth, Derry, a member of the Harbour Board, and Mr. W. B. Smyth, Strabane, there will be very sincere sympathy in their great bereavement. The funeral was private.

The private funeral of Mrs. Smyth took place on Saturday to the New Cemetery, Strabane. Along the route shop windows were shuttered and window-blinds drawn. Rev. Edward Clarke, B.A., Strabane, and Rev. Dr. George Thompson, Belfast, conducted the services in the house and at the graveside. The employees of the firm of Messrs. Robert Smyth & Sons, millers and grain merchants, walked in processional order behind the hearse. The chief mourners were -- Mr. R. H. Smyth, Derry, and Lieutenant William B. Smyth, Strabane (sons); Dr. Frizzel, Derry (son-in-law); and Mr. David Wilson, solicitor, Raphoe. Mr. W. H. Cavendish (son-in-law) was unavoidably absent owing to the mail train being late. The Right Rev. Dr. John Irwin, Moderator of the General Assembly, wired from Cork an expression of deep sorrow and regret that he was unable to be present.



We regret to record the death, which took place after a brief illness on Thursday of last week, at Ballymenoch, of Mr. Samuel Pettigrew, eldest son of Mr. David H. Pettigrew, and grandson of Mr. Robert G. Pettigrew, ex-Rural District Councillor for Holywood, The deceased gentleman, who was twenty-five years of age, was a capable and experienced agriculturist, and was held in high esteem by reason of his sterling character and geniality of disposition in the district, in which the family to which he belongs has resided for several generations, his father, whom he assisted, having holdings in Ballymenoch, Ballymoney (County Down), Ballydavey, and Cultra. The late Mr. Pettigrew has a number of relatives who are engaged in the present war. His brother, Hebert, is serving with the Royal Engineers, and his uncle, Andrew Pettigrew, who served in the South African war, is now a sergeant in the Royal Engineers. Of his five cousins, three (sons of Mr. S. Dornan, Templemore Avenue) are in the Army Service -- Staff-Sergeant Robert G. Pettigrew Dornan, William Dornan, and James Dornan -- another, Wm. George Lee, is with the New Zealand forces, and at present on leave in Belfast, while the fifth, William James Anderson, is in the Navy. The funeral took place on Sabbath to the family burying-ground, Holywood.



Presbyterians Killed in Action.

Mr. James Andrews, Templemore Park, Londonderry, has been notified by the War Office that his son, Second-Lieutenant J. H. M. Andrews, Royal Irish Rifles, who was lately reported missing and wounded on 10th[?] Aug., is now reported missing, believed killed. He was twice wounded in July, 1916. His elder brother, Stuart, is at present in France serving with the Canadian Field Artillery. At the morning service, conducted by the Rev. H. M'Kinty, in Carlisle Road Presbyterian Church, Derry, on Sabbath, Rev. John Huey, M.A., B.D., made suitable reference to the death of Second-Lieutenant Andrews, whose father is one of the oldest members of the church session. "Our sincere sympathy," he said, "goes out especially to the bereaved parents and the mourning brothers and sisters. Young Andrews was a good son in his father's home, a welcome chum among his equals in age, an eager and fearless officer at the battle front when danger was all around and death near, and we have reason to believe that he was also a good soldier of Jesus Christ, the Captain of salvation. Let us, then, not sorrow as those who have no hope. May the God of all comfort bless and comfort the bereaved household, whose hearts are sore and whose affections are torn and bleeding."

The death is announced in action of Lieutenant Joseph Stewart, son of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Stewart, Flour Mills, Coalisland. He was educated at the Coleraine Academical Institution, and on leaving school he entered his father's business, and was a leading member of the U.V.F., and took a deep interest in the movement from its inception in Tyrone. He enlisted in the Ulster Division in June, 1916, and saw active service at Ypres and Messines. He subsequently qualified for a commission, and was posted with the 16th Division at Mullingar. In June last he returned to France with a draft of the Dublin Fusiliers, in which regiment he had got a commission. He was beloved by all who knew him, his happy and cheerful disposition influencing all with whom he came into contact. In the home and family circle he was a dutiful, helpful, and loving son and brother. His fellow-officers bear testimony to the nobility of his character and his soldierly qualifications, and regret the loss of a brave and courageous comrade. As a member of the Stewartstown Presbyterian Church he was interested in all the activities of the congregation. Rev. T. A. Speer, B.A., has said "that the Christian nobility of his character, his unselfishness, his integrity, his readiness to shoulder the burdens of the weak, were constantly displayed." While he will be mourned in his home and regretted in the community, he has left an unstained record of a life lived by faith in God and helpfulness to his fellowman.


Bessbrook Minister for the Front.

At a meeting of the Newry Presbytery on Tuesday, Rev. Alex. C. Stuart, B.A., minister of the Bessbrdok Presbyterian Church, applied for and was granted two years' leave of absence to undertake chaplain duty at the front. Mr. Stuart was out in France early in the year as chaplain in connection with the Y.M.C.A.


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