The Witness - Friday, 6 December 1918


ARNOLD--PALMER -- Nov. 27, at Killead Presbyterian Church, by Rev. J. A. Canning, LL.B., Hans, second, son of the late Carlisle Arnold and Mrs. Arnold, to Margaret E. (Meg), younger daughter of the late Wm. Palmer and Mrs. Palmer, both of Crumlin.


GILLESPIE -- Nov. 29, at 58, Dufferin Avenue, Bangor, James Gillespie, formerly of Corcreeny, Lurgan. Interred in First Lurgan Presbyterian Church Burying-ground on Monday, the 2nd December.

LEGATE -- Nov. 29, 1918, at his residence, Scarva Street, Banbridge, Alexander Legate. Interred in Family Burying-ground, Scarva Street Presbyterian Churchyard, on Monday, 2nd December.

WOODS -- Dec. 2, at 14, Eglantine Avenue, Samuel, the dearly-beloved husband of Annie Woods. Funeral private. Deeply regretted.

BROWN -- Nov. 28 (suddenly), at Ballykeel, Lougherene, Ballynahinch, David Brown.

BURNETT -- Nov. 21, 1918 (of pneumonia), in Palestine, Corporal Campbell Burnett, Despatch Rider, G.H.2 Egyptian Expeditionary Force, aged 22 years, son of Hugh Burnett, Newry Street, Banbridge.

DOUGLAS -- Dec. 1, at Ravarnette, Lisburn, Agnes, beloved wife of James Douglas.

GUY -- Nov. 30, 1918, Margaret Sproule Guy, the dearly-loved wife of F. A Guy, J.P., Drumlish House, Dromore, County Tyrone.

HAM -- Dec. 1, at 13, Castlereagh Street (from pneumonia), Sidney, dearly-beloved husband of Leah Ham.

HERDMAN -- Nov. 29, at the Post Office, Dundrod, Sarah Jane Herdman.

MACARTNEY -- Nov. 29, at Cabra, Larchfield, Lisburn, Wm. Macartney.

MINNIS -- Nov. 30, at his residence, Roughfort, Mallusk (of pneumonia), Francis Minnis, beloved husband of Agnes Minnis.

MOORE -- Nov. 30, at Meeting-house, Cairncastle, Thomas James, youngest son of James and Mary Moore.

M'FARLAND -- Dec. 3, at her residence, 19, Atlantic Avenue, Belfast, Hessie M'Farland, widow of the late Thomas M'Farland, Balteagh, Limavady.

M'KINNEY -- Nov. 25, 1918 (of pneumonia), at her father's residence, Tatnagilta, Cookstown, Martha, youngest daughter of William M'Kinney.

M'REYNOLDS -- At her mother's residence, Railway Road, Coleraine, Mary Reid, the beloved daughter of Mrs. M'Reynolds.

STEWART -- Nov. 30, at 1, Olive Terrace, Fountain Hill, Londonderry, Wm. Stewart (formerly of Midland Railway).

WALLACE -- Nov. 29, at his residence, Ballyferris, Ballywalter, John Wallace.




Air Force Casualties. -- The total number of casualties to officers and men of the Royal Air Force from April 1 last (the date of the amalgamation of the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Flying Corps) to November 11 was 7,598. Of that total 1,551 officers and 1,129 other ranks were killed.

Etonians War Service. -- During the war 5,610 Etonians have been on active service, of whom 722 were killed in action, 17 died of wounds and 135 from other causes, whilst 1,068 were wounded. Amongst the numerous honours gained were 13 V.C., 8 D.S.O. and one bar, 407 D.S.O., 31 bars and one second bar, 554 Military Crosses, with 21 bars and 3 second bars, 1 Albert Medal.

Kaiser to be Tried. -- Sir F. E. Smith, at Wimborne, said the Government intended to punish without distinction all who had broken every law, human and Divine. The Kaiser claimed that his will was supreme in Germany. Then his was the chief responsibility, so far as they could ensure it, that he should be given the opportunity of answering charges which would be preferred against him.

Drink Traffic. -- Lord d'Abernon, head of the Central Control Board regulating the liquor traffic, delivered an address at the Society of Arts on "Rival Theories of the Causes of Drunkenness." Before the war, he observed, conditions in the licensed trade gave no cause for satisfaction either to the State or to the public. The conditions of life and work among the retail section were terrible in the extreme.

Family Stricken with Typhus. -- Mr. M'Rory said at Derry Guardians that all the members of a family in Inch (Donegal) district were down with typhus, and were without food or milk in the house. The father could not get a coffin for a dead child. A neighbour left food near the house. It was ordered that the patients be removed to hospital.

Viceroy's New Council. -- The Lord Lieutenant has appointed the following gentlemen to act as am Advisory Council -- The Earl of Dunraven, Marquis of Londonderry, Earl of Granard, Right Hon. Walter Kavanagh, Sir Thos. Stafford, Sir Stanley Harrington, and Mr. Frank Brooke. "It is understood," says the Dublin correspondent of "The Times," "that the new Advisory Council has been appointed with the object of enabling the Lord Lieutenant to obtain' the views of leading men from all parts of the Country on matters affecting Ireland."

Would Hang the Kaiser. -- Mr. Geo. Barnes, of the War Cabinet, in an election speech, said he was for hanging the Kaiser. There had been talk of prosecuting the submarine commanders, the murderers of Captain Fryatt and other culprits. He wanted to start at the top. They had inside knowledge that the Kaiser presided at meetings not a month before we were involved in war, at which war was actually decided upon, and it was monstrous that the greatest criminal, coward, culprit, and murderer in history should escape just punishment for his crime.

New North Atlantic Steamers. -- It is officially announced that three large steamers, intended for the North Atlantic passenger service, were recently completed by Messrs. Harland & Wolff (Limited), Belfast. The Vedic, built for the White Star Line, and the Rimouski for the Dominion Line, are sister ships of nearly 10,000 tons register, and besides being large cargo carriers are designed primarily for a third-class passenger business. The third vessel, the Regina, built for the Dominion Line, is a large triple screw steamer, 16,314 tons, which, while carrying a large cargo, is intended for cabin and third-class passengers.

Military Wedding at Ballyalbany. -- The marriage was solemnised on 20th November, in Ballyalbany Presbyterian Church, of Miss Kathleen Mary Swan, youngest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Swan, The Bungalow, Monaghan, and Captain John P. Castles, D.C.M., 8th (Irish) K.L.R. There was a large attendance of friends and well-wishers, and the ceremony was performed by the Rev. J. A. Cargin, B.A., minister of Ballyalbany. The bride was attended by Miss Angliker (Fir Dene, Belfast) as bridesmaid, and the bridegroom was accompanied by Lieutenant D. R. Pavia, South Wales Border Regiment, as best man.

Belfast Rotary Club. -- At the seventh annual general meeting of the Belfast Rotary Club, it was reported that during the year subscriptions amounting to 543 9s 9d had been paid direct through the club to war and other charities. The following officers and committee were elected for the year 1918-19:-- President, Mr. Hugh Boyd, C.A.; vice-president, Mr. J. S. Garrett; hon. treasurer, Mr. James F. Newel; hon. secretary, Mr. W. G. Gabbey. Committee -- Messrs. F. Walker, W. H. Alexander, A. S. Davidson, W. Sweeney, J. M. Colton, R. R. Bowman, E. Dempster, and W. Malcolm, Mr. E. Dempster was re-elected hop. treasurer of the weekly Collection Fund, and Mr. W. H Alexander was re-elected assistant Editor of the "Rotary Wheel."

America's war cost. -- Mr. Burke, Treasurer the United States', reports to Mr. M'Adoo that the Army cost 1,130,000,000, the Navy 275,000,000 the Civil Government 305,000,000 during the year ending June 30 last.

The "Curfew" in Vienna. -- No fighting permitted now in Vienna in any shops except those selling food. Restaurants and cafes are permitted to have a single gas-jet or a single small electric light for each six persons present.

Teachers' War Bonus. -- Mr. A. Bonaparte Wyse, secretary of the Committee of National Education, writes that the Commissioners understand the recent award of the Arbitration and Conciliation Board to mean that all recognised teachers in convent National schools paid by capitation will be entitled to receive from July 1 last a war bonus of 26 a year.

From Trench to Pulpit. -- Many soldiers, sailors and airmen are offering themselves for the ministry, said Lord Brassey, chairman of the Finance Committee of the Church of England Central Fund. It is estimated that 100 will cover the training of an ex-service man, and that 200,000 a year will be needed for the next three years.

Soldier-Prince Killed. -- Captain Prince Antoine d'Orleans and Braganza, M.C., A.D.C., Royal Canadian Dragoons, died at Edmonttee Military Hospital from injuries sustained in a flying accident. He was journeying by aeroplane from France to London with despatches, when, owing to fog, the pilot was obliged to make a forced landing at Old Southgate and the machine collided with a cottage. The pilot was killed.

Social Reform. -- Very Rev. Dr. Drummond, Moderator of the United Free Church Assembly, addressed the members of the Glasgow United Free Church Office-bearers' Union on "The Office-bearer in Social and Industrial Reform." He believed that office-bearers who held different opinions on social and industrial problems or who represented interests such as those of capital and labour would find in their Church Courts a favourable atmosphere for the discussion of these problems.

Catholic Appeal to Mr. Wilson. -- President Wilson has, it is stated, been petitioned by the Catholic clergy of San Francisco diocese, numbering several hundreds, Archbishop Hanna being the leading signatory, to support the claims of Ireland for consideration as an independent nation. The appeal has been personally presented to the President at Washington by Senator Phelan, a former Mayor of San Francisco, who is of Irish descent. It asks Mr. Wilson to act as champion of the claim of a free Ireland on the same basis as Poland and Siberia, and it is added that he is considering the matter.

Mr. Shortt and Ireland. -- Mr. Edward Shortt, Chief Secretary for Ireland, at Newcastle, said that during reconstruction they would endeavour to put Ireland in a state of financial stability. If Irishmen, instead of living in the past century, would come down and meet each other in business they would find that Connaught men and Ulster men were very much alike. He was elected as a Home Ruler, but if he had gone to Ireland as a Unionist he would be a Home Ruler by now. He held the opinion that President Wilson would decline to interfere with regard to settling the Irish question.

Future of Palestine. -- Mr. Nahum Sokolow, accompanied by his secretaries, has arrived in Paris, where he will remain until after the Peace Conference. With the approval of the British and French Governments he will open there a Zionist Bureau for the purpose of keeping the various Peace delegations informed about Jewish national aspirations. Dr. C. Weizmann, head of the Zionist Commission to Palestine, will be leaving for Paris in a few days. When the question of the future of Palestine comes up for discussion at the Peace Conference, the Zionist leaders will have an opportunity of submitting before it the Jewish claims to the country.

Military Funeral in Belfast. -- Military honours were accorded the funeral of Lieutenant W. H. Martin, Shropshire Light Infantry, son of the late Mr. and Mrs. Robert Martin, of Montana, Glandore Avenue, Belfast. The remains were removed from Victoria Barracks, where deceased had succumbed to influenza, and were conveyed to Hillsborough Churchyard, the firing party accompanying the cortege to the Balmoral tramway terminus. A service was conducted in St. Enoch's Presbyterian Church by Rev. John Pollock and Rev. A. Wylie Blue, the latter also officiating at the graveside. Messrs. Melville & Co., Ltd., carried out the funeral arrangements.

Flax Scutchers' Wages. -- A meeting of the Ulster Flax Scutchers' Trade Union Society was held in the Town Hall, Coleraine, when a lengthened discussion took place on the wages fixed by the Arbitration Court. The speakers pointed out that scutchers were only receiving 1s 7d per stone for scutching, while the millowners received 4s 10½d. A resolution was adopted that the Department and Flax Supply Committee be given to the 9th December to consider the matter, and if they had not arrived a decision by that time that the Secretary convene a meeting of the representatives of the different branches of the scutchers' union in Ulster to consider what action should be taken.



A Magnificent Record.

In a tribute to the Ulster Division from the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Corps of the Second Army, of which it formed a unit in the closing stages of the war, he says:-- "The 36th (Ulster) Division has been fighting continuously since the 28th September in the operations in Flanders. The spirit, dash, and initiative shown by all ranks have been splendid and beyond praise. The leadership displayed by yourself and your brigade and other commanders could not have been better. The conditions under which the men have had to fight have been trying, but nothing seemed to stop your gallant division. I have also been struck with the good staff work of the division, and it is very creditable to all concerned. When the history is written of what the division has done in Flanders during the past month it will prove to be a record of magnificent fighting and wonderful progress, for during this period an advance has been made of about twenty-five miles over the worst of country and under the heaviest machine gun fire ever experienced in this war. This advance has entailed constant fighting, but the 36th Division has overcome every obstacle, and has proved itself to be one of the best fighting divisions in the Army -- well commanded and well staffed."


Collision off the Irish Coast. -- The Cunard liner Orduna (New York to Liverpool) cut half way through the oil tank ss. Konakry (London), in a collision south of Galley Head. A U.S. destroyer took off the crew, seven of whom were killed by the Collision. The vessel was beached at Courtmacsherry Bay, and the survivors were landed.


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The Witness - Friday, 13 December 1918


AICKEN -- Dec. 8, at their residence, Ballyhanwood, Co. Down, Jane, widow of the late Robert Aicken; also Margaret Jane, their second daughter.

BREEZE -- Dec. 11, 1918, at her residence, 33, Hamilton Road, Bangor, Sara J. R., widow of the late John Breeze, Solicitor, Glasgow. ALEX. S. BREEZE.

BROOKS -- Dec. 7, at the residence of her son-in-law (Hugh Bailie, Blackabbey, Greyabbey), Jane, widow of the late Samuel Hunter Brooks.

DICKEY -- Dec. 7, at his residence, Risdale, Donaghadee Road, Bangor, Co. Down, Joseph Dickey, late of Rosetta Park, Belfast.

DUNN -- Dec. 11, at his parents' residence, Clare, Bready, Strabane, from pneumonia, following influenza, Robert John, second and dearly-loved son of John James and Alice Dunn, aged 18 years.

GILLILAND -- Dec. 5, at Hillhead, Lisnatrunk, Hillhall, Lisburn, Margaret, the beloved wife of James Gilliland.

GOUDY -- December 6, 1918, at his father's residence, Loanends, Muckamore, Robert, the youngest son of Samuel and Mary Goudy.

GRAHAM -- Dec. 7, at Corvoy, Ballybay, Co. Monaghan, Anna Eliza Hawthorne, wife of the late William Graham, and beloved mother of Mrs. John Baird, 13, Aytoun Road, Pollokshields, Glasgow, aged 82 years.

GROVES -- Aug. 3, 1918, at Hautmont, Germany (whilst prisoner of war), Joseph, son of the late Wm. Groves, Clontibret, Monaghan, and beloved husband of M. Margaret Groves,

HERDMAN -- Dec. 4, at Ballyhill, Jane, relict of the late George Herdman.

JAMISON -- Dec. 7, at New Street, Donaghadee (suddenly), Joseph Jamison.

JOHNSTON -- Dec. 5, at Ballindrum, Moneymore, Edward Johnston.

MORRISON -- Dec. 8, at Knockene, Finvoy, Ballymoney, Ellen, widow of the late James Morrison.

M'MULLAN -- Dec. 6, at her father's residence, Drumnacole, Galanagh, Carnlough, Mollie, second and dearly-loved daughter of John and Sarah M'Mullan, aged 18 years.

QUAYLE -- Dec. 5, at his father's residence, Lough View, Strangford, Harold O., eldest son of Herbert P. Quayle.

QUIREY -- Dec. 6, at Seaview Terrace, Whiteabbey, Sarah, daughter of the late Robert Quirey, Ballyhone, Monkstown.

RAINEY -- Dec. 7, at Cork Street Hospital, Dublin, Morton, beloved son of J. W. Rainey, Islandbawn, Muckamore.

ROBINSON -- Dec. 9, at her father's residence, Mary Eleanor (Nellie), wife of Lieutenant J. M. C. Robinson, R.E., and third daughter of Joseph Roulston, Esq., J.P., Gortaclare, Beragh.

SERVICE -- Dec. 8, at the Infirmary, Lisburn Road, Minnie Service, late of Raw Brae, Whitehead.

SHAW -- Dec. 6, at the residence of her late father (John Nesbitt), Railway Street, Ballynahinch, Georgina Barbara, dearly-beloved wife of Hugh Shaw.

SWARBRIGG -- Dec. 6, at his residence, Laurel Villa, Cootehill, John Swarbrigg.

THOMPSON -- Dec. 7, at No. 8, May Avenue, Bangor, Elizabeth, relict of the late James Thompson, of Castletown, Dundalk.

THOMPSON -- Dec. 7, at her residence, Doagh, Minnie, wife of the late James Thompson, and daughter of the late W. C. Heron.




No More Commissions. -- It is understood no more cadets in training will be gazetted, to command ranks. If no emergency arises it is probable they will be demobilised from the cadet battalions.

British Warship Mined. -- H.M.S. Cassandra, Captain E. C. Kennedy, R.N., struck a mine in the Baltic just before midnight on the 4th inst., and sank at one a.m. on December 5th. Eleven men are missing, presumably killed by the explosion. All the remainder of the officers and crew were saved by our destroyers.

Fate of the ex-Kaiser. -- The German Government has decided, according to a Zurich message to the Paris "Journal," to offer no opposition to the demands of the Allies for the ex-Kaiser and ex-Crown Prince to be given up for trial before an inter-Allied Court, and states that its point of view on the subject is that of The Hague.

Britain's Day. -- The King, in a message to the United States on the occasion of the celebration of "Britain's Day," said that the celebration would be welcomed by the people of the British Empire as a proof of the true and lasting friendship of the United States. He prayed that the coming era of peace may find the two nations always united as they are to-day.

White Flour. -- The directions dated November 27th last year relating to imported flour are now repealed, so that the retail sale and use of imported flour is permitted under the same conditions as home-milled flour. White flour will now be obtainable without any special permit, and consequently no official applications need be made either on behalf of invalids or for religious purposes.

Demobilisation Commenced. -- British demobilisation has been entered upon, and for London the centre at Wimbledon Camp from now will become daily the scene of the passage of pivotal men and later of the slip men from the Army to civilian life. Just now 7,000 Christmas leave men are brought across Channel daily in addition to repatriated prisoners and sick and wounded.

Canadian Wheat Crop. -- An Ottawa telegram states that the price of Canadian wheat for next harvest will be referred to the peace Conference before any action is taken by the Dominion Government. Two representatives of the western farmers and grain growers will be appointed to proceed overseas for a conference between Mr. Borden, the British authorities, and the Allies.

Sir Douglas Haig's Holiday. -- According to present arrangements, Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig will arrive at Dover on Friday, the 20th. He will drive through the town, the route being lined by the military. A luncheon will be held at its historic Town Hall, where the Mayor will preset an address. Lady Haig will be present.

Tragic Death of an Army Chaplain. -- On arrival at Plymouth of the train from Paddington the guard discovered in one of the carriages the body of a man believed to be that of an Army chaplain in a kneeling position on the seat with a silk scarf round his neck and fastened to the luggage rack. Among deceased's papers was a railway warrant from France to Penzance.

Belfast Mother's Crime. -- At the Ulster Assizes Margaret Hamilton, wife of a soldier, was tried for the murder of her two-year-old son, David. During a thunderstorm last August she drowned David and another son aged two months in a pond* and tried to drown herself. The jury convicted the prisoner, but found she was insane at the time. The Judge directed her to be detained as a criminal lunatic.

Influenza Scourge. -- Regarding a complaint that there was not proper provision for influenza patients, the Coleraine Guardians were informed by their Clerk, Mr. S. Lecky, that there was a rush of thirty-seven patients in two days. Two nurses were ill, and they had practically only one in the fever hospital. A nurse could not be got. He ascertained that at a dance in the rural district, which was attended by thirty couples, not a single one of them had escaped the 'flu, and several of them had died.

20,000 Gift to University. -- Major David Davies has addressed a letter to Sir John Williams, President of University College of Wales, offering, on behalf of his sisters and himself, to found a chair of international politics at Aberystwyth in memory of fallen students for the study of problems raised by the projects of a league of nations. They are prepared to contribute for this object the sum of 20,000, and would be glad if the proposal be accepted that the chair be associated with the illustrious name of President Wilson.

A Peace Delegate. -- It is announced that Mr. J. R. Clynes, Food Controller, has been appointed one of Great Britain's representatives at the Peace Conference.

Shell Gases as Ballot Boxes. -- Large shell cases, fitted with locked tops and an opening, are to be used in Nottingham as ballot boxes, as a sufficient number of orthodox receptacles are unobtainable.

Derry Teachers and the Organisation. -- Derry Teachers' Association (Protestant) decided, owing to "the action of the Irish Trades Congress in giving support to Sinn Fein," to sever connection with the I.N.T.O., which is affiliated with the Congress.

War Bonus for Pensioners. -- In consideration of the high cost of living it has been decided by the War Cabinet that for the period from November 1st, 1918, to June 30, 1919, a war bonus of 20 per cent. shall be added to the ordinary war pensions granted for disablement or death due to the war service of disabled men and their children and widows and the children of deceased men. Mr. Barnes, announcing the decision in Glasgow, said the soldier disabled and unable to follow his calling will get some 33s as against 27s 6d, and a woman with four children will get 40s 6d as against 33s 6d.

Railway Clerks' Demands. -- The Railway Clerks' Association, with a membership of over 70,000, demands a 38-hour working week for day duty and 34-hour week for night duty; minimum rates of salary for all general clerks ranging from 70 for a youth of sixteen to 230 for a man aged twenty-eight; stationmasters and others ranging from 250 to 1,000 a year; overtime to be at rate-and-a-half, seven hours to constitute a standard day, allowing for one half-holiday each week, preferably on Saturday; double pay for all bank holidays, Good Friday, Christmas Day, and Sundays.

Belfast Bank War Heroes. -- The Lord Bishop of the diocese (Right Rev. Dr. D'Arcy) dedicated a memorial window in the Belfast Cathedral in memory of members of the staff of the Belfast Bank who many made the supreme sacrifice in the war. Sir Edward and Lady Carson were present, and there was a very large congregation; including friends of the fallen soldiers and members of the staff of the bank. The window, which has been erected by the officials of the bank, represents Gideon and his men putting the Midianites to flight, the cry of the Israelites, "The Sword of the Lord and of Gideon," being effectively introduced.

Belfast Secondary Teachers. -- The monthly meeting of the Belfast branch of the Association of Secondary Teachers was held at Ye Olde Castle Restaurant -- Miss E. Davitt, M.A., presiding. There was a general discussion on the statement of Mr. George Watson before the Committee of Inquiry. The meeting emphasised the necessity for a pension scheme for lay teachers, and was of opinion that whatever the scheme it should provide for the payment of pensions on the full scale to all teachers as they retire at the specified age, independent of the number of years the scheme has been in operation.

Women in Industry. -- The Women's Industrial League memorialised the Premier urging freedom in manufacturing industries, and the removal of existing unjust restrictions. The memorial was signed by Lady Rhondda. In reply, Mr. Lloyd George says he hopes to carry out the Treasury agreement of 1915 in such a way as to give the unions no cause for complaint, but women would find ample scope for their activities in industries, and in new ones he would see there should be no discrimination against them, and to permit women to be the cat's-paw for reducing the level of wages was unthinkable.

Protection of Agriculture. -- Speaking at a function in connection with the milling industry in Belfast, Mr. H. M. Pollock, J.P., President of the Chamber of Commerce, said the Prime Minister had said he was determined that industries essential the life of the country should be protected, and in his election address he said that there should be no tax on foodstuffs. He would like to know how the Prime Minister proposed to protect agriculture because if the farmers of Ireland were to be left to the mercy of open markets he was afraid a marked check would take place in the progress and prosperity of Ireland, as agriculture was their premier industry.

Control of Milk. -- In view of the winter shortage of milk, the Food Controller has issued an Order which restricts further the consumption of milk in residential and catering establishments, milk shops, &c. The Order prohibits the service of milk as a separate beverage, and restricts the consumption for other purposes at catering establishments to a maximum weekly quantity calculated on the following basis -- For every breakfast, 1-7th pint; luncheon, 1-14th pint; dinner, 1-14th pint; tea, 1-14th pint. The amended Condensed Milk Order, which was to have come into force on Dec. 9, has been postponed until further notice.

Turkish Worships Surrender. -- The ex-German battle cruiser Goeben has surrendered to the Allies, and is now, lying at Stenia, in the Bosphorus. All the Turkish warships have also surrendered, and are now interned at the Golden Horn, Constantinople. The Russian men of war in the Black Sea Fleet which were manned by Germans have likewise been handed over. The Goeben is probably the most famous of the enemy warships, not because of any war achievements on her part, but because her arrival with the Breslau at Constantinople, after eluding the British warships, is believed to have been an important factor in inducing Turkey to enter the war.

World's Shipping Losses. -- Since March the world's output of merchant shipping tonnage has overtaken the losses during the war; and during the seven months, April to October, the new construction exceeded the losses by more than a million tons. World's merchant tonnage loss through enemy action and marine risks from the outbreak of the October 31 totalled 15,053,796 (gross). Against this has to be set new construction (10,850,000), and enemy tonnage captured (2,392,000), the world's net loss being 1,811,534 tons. Speaking in London, Sir E. Geddes said that during the war 2,475 ships were sunk with crews underneath, and 3,147 vessels were sunk with crews left adrift. Of fishing vessels 670 were sunk. The merchant service had lost 15,000.



Nature of Fatigue. -- Fatigue is the presence in the blood of poisonous by-products of life combustion. While we are aware the poisons accumulate faster than the system can remove them. When we are asleep, when the life combustion is slowed down, the system removes them faster than they accumulate. It is as though ashes accumulate in a stove at such a rate that the fire had to be put out ever so often to allow a chance to remove them.

Mannheim -- The River Port. -- The persistence of our airmen in attacking Mannheim (says a writer in the "Dally Chronicle") indicates the utility of that port in military estimation. For port it is, though far from the sea; a river port of great prosperity. Unlike England, Germany has not neglected her inland waterways, of which she has developed nearly 9,000 miles. Vast labour has been expended on the Rhine to make it navigable up to Mannheim, with the result that steam tugs and petrol-driven vessels haul convoys of barges, each of 2,000 tons burden, to this goal of British airmen.

Waste in Small Things. -- In "Wealth from Waste" Professor Henry Spooner declares that waste goes on in nearly every direction. Apart from big items, look at some of the small ones. There is waste of candles, matches (which ought to be made to strike at both ends), mustard (which should be made up in paste form), pins (which are made and lost by the million), string (the ragpickers of Paris save 660 a year out of bits of string in the rubbish boxes), and tram and bus tickets (which if dropped into a box at the end of the London vehicles alone be sold for 6 a day)

Lucky Thirteen. -- The thirteen superstition has (says the "Daily Express") suffered another blow, according to M. Chasse, Editor of "l'Evenement" of Montreal, and one of the party of Canadian journalists who are now visiting England. "We sailed from an American port," he said, "on Friday, the 13th of the month, with a convoy numbering thirteen vessels. The sum of the figures of our transport's number made thirteen, and the same is true of the number of the pier from which we sailed. Despite all this we had pleasant weather all the way, and enjoyed a safe and speedy trip. The U-boats kept at a distance."

Hospital Linen from Old Plans. -- Some time ago (says a Writer in the "Globe") an excellent scheme was started for converting the linen stripped from the back of old plans and engineers' drawings into hospital bandages, and so successfully has the idea worked out at the hands of Sir Francis Fox, a well-known member of the Institute of Civil Engineers, that new depots are to be opened in India and in Scotland. During the six months ending July 31st, 1918, the number of pieces of linen sent to hospitals in various widths of from 8in. to 48in., and lengths of from 2ft. to 30ft. was 24,215, leaving 4,390 pieces still in hand.

The Cow-Tree. -- How would you like a milk-tree in the garden? In the great forests by the seashore of Venezuela there grows a tree, popularly called the cow-tree, because it yields a white juice which the natives often use as milk. It is wholesome and nourishing, looks like milk, and tastes as sweet as cream. To get it, the trunk of the tree is cut and the sap oozes from the wound. So it is not nearly so liquid as milk, being in fact rather sticky, which is the only fault found with it. Like milk, it will turn sour if left to stand for a day or two. Other plants also give a milky juice, but in some of those it is of a poisonous nature.

The Coveted Wound Stripe. -- An R.A.M.C. captain, whom I met a few days ego (writes "Clubman" in the "Pall Mall Gazette"), told me many interesting yarns of his work in France. The chief anxiety of the "walking wounded," it appears, is not whether they will get well quickly or whether they will be sent to "Blighty." Nearly every one, after their hurts have been examined and dressed, ask, "Shall I get a wound stripe, sir?" The eagerness of these boys to wear the honourable insignia of wounds received in action is almost pathetic," said the M.O. "They cheer up wonderfully when I say, 'Yes, you'll get a wound stripe all right. I'll see to it that your name's in the casualty list.'"



Dr. Thos. Leary. -- The funeral of Dr. Thos. Leary, J.P., Castlederg, took place to the Presbyterian Cemetery, and was very largely attended by prominent men from the town and district, Strabane, and Londonderry. Business was entirely suspended in the town. A short service was conducted in deceased's house prior to the removal of the remains by Rev. W. F. Henderson, Second Castlederg Presbyterian Church, in which the deceased served for thirty-two years as an elder and as secretary and treasurer, and by Rev. James M'Cay, First Castlederg Presbyterian Church. The funeral was a Masonic one, deceased being a Past Master and Past King of the Order, and the funeral procession was headed by members of the Castlederg Masonic Lodge.

Mr. Richard Bagwell. -- The death of Mr. Richard Bagwell, J.P., D.L., occured at Clonmel. The deceased took a prominent part in Unionist politics in Ireland, and was one of the original signatories to the recent "call" to Unionosts. He was special Local Government Commissioner from 1898 to 1903, and a Commissioner of National Education since 1906. His writings included "IrelandUnder the Tudors" and "Ireland Under the Stuarts." His only son is manager of the Great Northern Railway.

An Irish Judge. -- The death occurred, at his residence, 26, Lower Leeson Street, Dublin, of Sir William Moore Johnston, Bart., formerly one of the Justices of the King's Bench in Ireland. Sir William, who was in his 90th year, was the only son of the late Rev. William Johnston, M.A., formerly rector of Glenore , County Cork. He was returned a member of Parliament for Mallow at the general election of April, q880, and on the formation of Mr. Gladstone's Administration he was appointed Solicitor-General for Ireland. He afterwards held the position of Attorney-General, and was appointed Judge of the High Court of Justice in Ireland, Queen's Bench Division, in 1883. The case of greatest importance in which he was engaged as council was probably the Phoenix Park murders, in which he was the leader for the prosecution.

Coleraine Factory Director. -- There is much regret in Coleraine and throughout the manufacturing industry generally at the death of Mr. Matthew Given, director of Messrs. R. H. & S. Rogers, Ltd., London, owners of Coleraine Shirt and Collar Factory. He had, during the past thirty-eight years, developed the concern from very small dimensions to its presence commanding position, and to the employment of over 400 hands. In St. Patrick's Church he was a devoted member, and he was a leading temperance worker. There is much sympathy for his only son (Mr. John G. Given), three daughters, and sister in their bereavement.

Strabane Airman's Funeral. -- Rev. E. Clarke, The Manse, Strabane, has recieved a letter from a French priest in the town of Cy????. telling how his son, Lieutenant J. K. Clarke, R.A.F., lost his life in combat over the town on the morning of 22nd July last. A patrol of German Pioneers robbed him after he had fallen. The Mayor had the bodies conveyed to the local hospice, asked and obtained permission to have a funeral, which was at once arranged for the next morning at 9 o'clock. It was a splendid demonstration. The whole population attended. There were more than 200 children present, each carrying a bunch of flowers. Then came the clergy, walking before the two coffins, behind which were the members of the town council, followed by the general public.


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The Witness - Friday, 20 December 1918

Roll of Honour

GILMOUR -- Died in Germany, as the result of wounds received in action on Sept. 12, 1918, Rifleman Frank C. Gilmour (late of Rathfriland and Glasgow), Machine-Gun Section New Zealand Expeditionary Force, aged 29 years. Deeply regretted. F. C. CLARKE. 171, Cromac Street, Belfast.


CHARLTON--M'VEY -- December 12 (by special licence), at "Rosemount," Knockaconny, Cookstown, the residence of the bride's brother, by Rev. David Maybin, B.A., John, elder son of the late Wallace Charlton, Mullaghtironey, Coagh, to Emma, elder daughter of the late John M'Vey, Knockaconny, and niece of the late Isaac M'Cord, Edernagh, Stewartstown.


CRAWFORD -- Dec. 17, at her residence, Budore, Catharine, dearly-beloved wife of Hugh Crawford. Funeral today (Friday), at 1 o'clock, to the family burying-ground, Dundrod. HUGH CRAWFORD.

CLELAND -- Dec. 14, at High Street, Killyleagh, Down, Mary (Minnie), third daughter of the late George Cleland.

GEARY -- Dec. 15, at Clare, Waringstown, James Geary, aged 90 years.

GIBSON -- Nov. 14, at Saskatoon, Sask., Canada, James, only son of the late Wm. J. Gibson, Ballinalough, Lyle Hill, Templepatrick.

GRAHAM -- Dee. 7, at Corvoy, Ballybay, Co. Monaghan, Anna Eliza Hawthorne, wife of the late William Graham, and beloved mother of Mrs. John Baird, 13, Aytoun Road, Pollokshields, Glasgow, aged 82 years.

HAMILTON -- Dec. 15, at Salterstown House, Co. Derry, Martha, the beloved wife of James Hamilton.

HOPPS -- Dec. 16, at Balteagh, Portadown, Sarah Ann, the beloved wife of Thomas George Hopps.

KIDD -- Dec. 15, at Culkeran, Moy, Isaac Kidd, in his 92nd year.

LILLIE -- Dec. 16, at 6, Bingham Street, Bangor, Margaret, the dearly-beloved wife of Thomas J. Lillie, and second daughter of the late Wm. Campbell, Springfield Road, Belfast.

MANDERSON -- Nov. 16 (from influenza), at Ryley, Alberta, Arthur F., youngest son of the late Rev. D. Manderson, Minterburn, Caledon, Co. Tyrone.

MENOWN -- Oct. 15, at a hospital in San Francisco, U.S. America, after an operation, James, the eldest and beloved son of John and Elizabeth Menown, Portaferry, Co. Down.

MURTLAND -- Dec. 14, at his residence, Tullyarmon, Limavady, John Murtland, eldest son of the late John Murtland.

M'CLURG -- Dec. 15, at Ballydonaghy, Crumlin. John M'Clurg.

M'CRACKEN -- Dec. 14, at Newcastle, County Down, Andrew M'Cracken.

M'GIFFORD -- Dec. 15, at her brother-in-laws residence, Cottown, Ballygrainey, Saran Jane M'Gifford, aged 44 years.

OLLEY -- October 28, at Holly Lodge, Kloof Street, Capetown, Sarah, beloved wife of Charles William Olley, late of Belfast, Ireland, aged 63 years.

PATTON -- Dec. 16, at Ashley Gardens, Ballyclare, Jane, widow of the late John Patton.

PEACOCK -- Dec. 15, at Laurel Vale, Dunmurry, Jane, widow of the late Edward Peacock.

SHAW -- Dec. 14, 1918. at the Glebe, Kirkcubbin, Thomas Shaw, J.P.

SIMPSON -- Dee. 14, 1918 (result of an accident), Robert Simpson, 15, Allworthy Avenue (formerly of Kilrea), dearly-beloved father of M. and Nettie H. Simpson. Interred in Carnmoney Cemetery.

In Memoriam

M'KEE -- In loving memory of Hannah Maria Hunter, beloved wife of John M'Kee, Stuart House, Holywood, who entered into it rest Dec. 21, 1917. "Her children arise up and call her blessed."

ROBINSON -- In loving memory of Joseph Robinson, Drumenon, who departed this life on Dec. 20, 1917, and was interred in the family burying-ground, St. Johnston. "He giveth His beloved sleep,"-

SHANNON -- In loving and affectionate remembrance of John Shannon, Hibernian House, Kingscourt, Co. Cavan, who died 17th Dec., 1914; and Susan W. Shannon, 14, Indiana Avenue, Belfast, daughter of the late John Shannon, Muff, Kingscourt, Co. Cavan, who died 14th Dec., 1916 and were interred in New Cemetery, Ervey.




Coming Change in Chancellorship. -- Replying to a question in Glasgow, Mr. Bonar Law said he would not be Chancellor of the Exchequer for the next Budget.

Precaution Against Rabies. -- The prohibition against the landing in Ireland of dogs from Great Britain has been extended to dogs from the Channel Islands.

Allan Liner Wrecked. -- The Allan liner Corinthian, bound for Glasgow, was wrecked at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, says a message from St. John's, N.B. The crew of eighty-seven were saved by patrol boats.

Fellowship for Belfast Man. -- Mr. Edwin Stewart Craig, M.A., University College, Oxford, assistant registrar of the University, who was born in Belfast in 1865, has been elected to a Fellowship of Magdalen College.

A Notable Flight. -- Lieutenant Goody has flown from Espejo to Mendoza, a distance of 398 kilometres (239 miles) in one hour and twenty-eight, minutes. An average height of 7,500 metres (24.750 ft.) was kept throughout the flight.

Total Shipping Losses. -- It is officially stated, says an exchange Paris cablegram, that the total amount of merchant shipping of all nationalities sunk by enemy submarines during the war, was 15,057,785 tons. The world's tonnage, compared with pre-war tonnage, has diminished 1,811,584 tons.

Rent Restriction. -- Mr. Lloyd George, in a message to a Glasgow Coalition candidate, says the subject of rent restriction is being dealt with by a Committee, which has not yet reported, but it is certain the Government will not allow the Act to lapse.

Tillage Order Penalties. -- The Department points out that any occupier who has failed to cultivate the acreage required this year under the Tillage Order has incurred a penalty at the rate of 5 per each acre in default. The penalty is payable by the person in occupation on December 31.

Munificent Gifts. -- Sir William Gray, who has presented a large house and grounds to the town of West Hartlepool for a public art gallery, is a brother of Mrs R. J. M'Mordie, Cabin Hill, Knock, Belfast. He has also given 13,000 to a fund for the restoration of St. Hilda's Church, Hartlepool.

A Christadelphian's Mistake. -- Alexander Robert Jackson, a Christadelphian, who was summoned at Old Street, London, for damaging tools because he was dismissed from his work, admitted that "from a Christian standpoint" he had committed an error of judgment. He was fined 5 and ordered to pay 10 damages.

Gale in the Atlantic. -- The oil tank Steamer Aras, Texas to Lough Swilly, has put into Queenstown. The captain reported the loss of Chief Officer Dawson and Able Seaman Manson during a terrific gale in Mid-Atlantic. The cargo steamer Linmore, Johnson Line, Liverpool, reached Queenstown with the steering gear damaged in the same gale.

Dora's Last Kick. -- A case described as Dora's last kick was heard at Thorpe, Essex, when Miss Emma Barron, aged 81, a lady farmer at Great Holland, near Clacton, was fined 227 for using wheat for poultry feeding. It was stated that defendant disregarded repeated warnings, saying she would obey the laws of God, but not of man.

Control of Bacon. -- A limited number of Irish bacon curers have been licensed by the Irish Food Control Committee to export their surplus to Great Britain. They consign it to their English agents, who will supply wholesalers and retailers that dealt in Irish bacon. An Order coming into effect a once fixes the price of Irish rolls at 222/6 a cwt.

Soldiers for Emergency. -- The War Office announces that the institution of Class "Z" of the Army Reserve is to provide a means by which demobilised soldiers could, until the termination of the war, be made available for recall to the colours in case of an emergency, and to facilitate the earlier release of men who would otherwise have to be retained.

Irish Fat Cattle. -- The Department of Agriculture have received the following telegram from the Deputy Live Stock Commissioner, Glasgow:-- "Numbers of Irish fat stock being shipped far in excess of quota authorised. Further supplies cannot be accepted at any Scottish landing port. Kindly withhold licences of consignors to ship further supplies fat stock this week."

Mr. Churchill and Religious Equality. -- At Dundee Mr. Churchill declared himself in favour of religious equality. When a Church was freed from the State, he said, it became more powerful and zealous. It went down to the homes of the people and gathered great strength, whereas when it was connected with the State it to some extent withered and lost its fervour and power.

Suffragette on England's Danger. -- Speaking at a woman's meeting at Queen's Hall, Miss Christabel Pankhurst said the country is now threatened with a Coalition of the old Liberal gang, the Bolshevik, and the Sinn Feiners. It might be necessary, if this Coalition obtained any material success to decree another dissolution and so purge the Commons of these enemies of Britain and the Empire.

Flight to India. -- Major-Gen. W. G. H. Salmond, D.S.O., accompanied by Capt. R. Smith, A.F.C., has arrived at Karachi in a Handley-Page machine to confer with the Indian Government regarding the establishment of an aerial service to India. The machine flew from England to Egypt, and took part in operations against the Turks. The fight from Cairo to Karachi (2,518 miles) occupied 36 hours.

Prince's Empire Tour. -- Plans are being completed for the departure of the Prince of Wales on an Empire tour directly after the peace negotiations have been concluded. One of the newest battle cruisers is being fitted up for the Royal party. The tour will be a lengthy one. This will be one fitting way in which the King will express to the Overseas Dominions his deep consciousness of the great service they have rendered the mother country and the whole Empire during the war.

Sir F. W. Moneypenny Honoured. -- The congregation of St. John's Church, Laganbank, paid a marked compliment to Sir Frederick W. Moneypenny, when, at a largely-attended social gathering in the parochial hall, they made him the recipient of a beautifully illuminated address and a handsome presentation in the form of a silver loving cup. The members wished in this way to recognise the distinction of Knighthood which had recently been conferred by the Lord Lieutenant upon the City Chamberlain.

War Aims Expenditure. -- The report of the War Aims Committee, in criticising the salaries paid to officials as excessive, states that the salaries included -- Director of Publicity, 1,500; Chief of Intelligence Department, 1,000; 3 assistant editors, 800 each; business manager, 800; staff writer, 600; and accounting officer, 550. The Hon. F. E. Guest told the Committee that the salaries were settled by Sir E. Carson under the authority ef the War Cabinet and approved by the Treasury, and he considered them moderate.

Veteran Unionist Dead. -- Mr. Isaac Kidd, Culkeeran, Moy, County Tyrone, has died at the age of ninety-two. He was a native of County Down, and in his early manhood came to reside in the Moy district. He took a prominent part in public life; and had been one of the Dungannon Beard of Guardians as member for the Moy division for over forty years. From 1872 he was the deputy vice-chairman. He was an enthusiastic Unionist and an adherent of the Presbyterian Church, and was for almost forty years an elder of Moy congregation.

Man With Four Wives. -- When Lance-Corporal Ownsworth, R.A.M.C., was, at Wem (Salop) returned for trial on a charge of bigamy, he was confronted in Court with four wives. The first, marriage was in 1907, the second in 1912, the third in 1917, and the fourth last month, when the accused was arrested, as the wedding party arrived at the bride's home. There were children by the first three marriages; the second wife was receiving separation allowance, and accused sent money to the third wife. To the fourth woman he said he had divorced his wife.

The Christmas Post. -- The Postmaster-General appeals to the public to assist him and themselves by posting such packets as must be sent by post earlier than usual, and by withholding from the post during the last fortnight in December all articles of trade circulars, the despatch of which can, for the time at least, be deferred. Those articles which must be sent should be posted well in advance of Christmas -- the earlier the better; if possible during the morning or afternoon, and in any case not later than the morning of the 21st inst.

State and Milk Production. -- Urging state control of the wholesale milk trade, the Committee on Production and Distribution of Milk, in their third interim report, rule out co-operative depots. They recommend the diminishing of war obstacles, the fixing of fair prices, the development of the dairy industry in the United Kingdom with a view to increasing the supply of milk regularly available, the prohibition of the slaughter of female calves, veterinary assistance to dairy farmers, and measures to enable dairying to compete with cereal farming and other forms of industry.

Demobilisation of the Navy. -- Arrangements have been completed for the demobilisation from the navy of officers and men who joined for the duration of the war. A special booklet is being issued giving, under an alphabetical list of ratings, the kind of work such men can perform, and their qualifications. The Admiralty desire the speedy return of men to the mercantile marine or fishing fleets or their ordinary avocations. The men will be demobilised as near as possible to their homes. Already over 1,288 "pivotal" men have been dispersed. Every man is entitled to twenty-eight days' leave and pay, and will receive a gratuity.

Tribute to Shipyard Workers. -- The Port Bowen, a 10,000 tons vessel, built by the Commonwealth Dominion Line, was launched from Messrs. Workman and Clark's yard in Belfast, the Ceremony being performed by Lady Carson. Sir Edward Carson, responding to insistent calls, in a brief address, recalled his days as First Lord of the Admiralty. There was a time, he said, when telegram after telegram arrived announcing the sinking of millions of tons of shipping, and when it was very doubtful whether they would be able to carry on owing to the ravages of enemy submarines, but the efforts of the shipyard men -- and in no place were they better than Belfast -- enabled all difficulties to be overcome. He promised, if returned to Parliament, to see that everything done for the people of England and Scotland applied to the people of Belfast.

Belfast Problems. -- At a meeting of the Council of the Chamber of Commerce -- the president, Mr. H. M. Pollock, J.P., in the chair -- a letter was considered from the Town Clerk inviting the Chamber to appoint one of their members to confer with the special committee appointed by the Corporation to report regarding the means whereby the provision of houses, admittedly necessary in Belfast, can best be arranged for. The president was requested to confer with the committee in question. The secretary reported on the several conferences held under the auspices of the Chamber with a view to the improvement of primary education in Belfast, and, on the interview on the subject which the deputation organised by the Chamber had with the Corporation on the 2nd inst. The president and Mr. Duffin led in a general discussion on the question, and the Council unanimously approved the action already taken by the Education Committee, and authorised such further action as is necessary to carry the movement to practical completion.

A Generous Offer. -- Mr. R. Travers, Mill Cove, Cork, in a letter, states that if a fund is started to meet the higher cost of living of Episcopalian clergymen he will subscribe 500.

Belfast Shipbuilding Output. -- Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co., Belfast, announce their output for this year at 19 vessels, or 69,370 tons. Last year's output was 35 vessels of 77,000 tons.

Motoring in France. -- The French General Petroleum Committee has adopted the proposal for a decree restoring freedom of motor traffic and the unrestricted use of paraffin and petrol from 1st January, 1919.

Some Paris Casualties. -- The "Figaro," referring to the attacks on Paris during the war, says that in 1918, 336 bombs killed 402 and injured 809 persons. The big guns killed 196 and wounded 417. Other bombs killed 206 and injured 392 persons.

English Coal Shortage. -- There is acute shortage of coal for industrial purposes in the English Midlands, but miners are being returned from the army at the rate of 5,000 a day, and the output is expected to be appreciably larger next month.

Decorated with the V.C. -- Commander the Hon. E. Bingham, R.N., son of the late Lord Clanmorris, Bangor, was received by the King at Buckingham Palace and decorated with the V.C., which he won at the Jutland Battle, where he was taken prisoner.

Press Bureau Holidays. -- The Press Bureau will issue no news to the Press from 3 p.m. on Tuesday the 24th, to 3 p.m. on the 26th instant. Between those days and hours the censoring of Press matter will be suspended. The cable censoring will be carried on as usual.

Food Prosecutions and Orders. -- The Ministry of Food issued 660 Orders since Jan. of last year. From Jan. last the prosecutions were -- Great Britain. 26,771; Ireland, 12,925. In Great Britain there were 38 cases of imprisonment, and fines averaging 5 0s 5d, and in Ireland, 7s 8d.

Launch at Warrenpoint. -- The first launch from Warrenpoint took place when the Crenfarm, a ferroconcrete boat of 1,000 tons dead weight, was successfully launched. She was built to the order of the Admiralty. The Crenfarm is one of four vessels in course of construction.

Repatriated War Prisoners. -- Since the armistice, 4,124 officers, 82,460 other ranks, and 3,141 civilian prisoners of war have been repatriated. Capt. L. Robinson, V.C., R.A.F., who brought down the first Zeppelin in Britain, and has been a prisoner of war since April, has arrived at Leith.

The Louvain Library -- The Senate of the National University passed a resolution, on the morion of Prof. G. Sigerson, seconded by the Rt. Hon. M. F. Cox, appealing to other Universities, Colleges, and Societies to co-operate in an effort to enable the University of Louvain to re-create a great library.

Sir H. Wilson Honoured. -- The King has appointed General Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, in recognition of his distinguished services in connection with the war. Sir Henry Wilson is Colonel of the Royal Irish Rifles.

General Smuts and War Cabinet. -- The "Daily Express" understands that Lieut.-Gen. Smuts has tendered his resignation to the Prime Minister as a member of the War Cabinet. His reasons for retiring are that the end of the war has come, and he feels that there is no further necessity for his activities in that direction.

An Independent South Africa. -- An announcement appears in the National Press in Capetown, signed by General Hertzog and their Nationalist leaders, calling a congress of the Nationalist Party at Bloemfontein on January 16 for the purpose of appointing a deputation in view of the Peace Conference to obtain an independent South Africa.

Munition Firms' Future. -- Mr. Churchill has sent a message of appreciation to munition firms, in which he says that though appliances of horror and destruction will probably be limited in the future they must always be abreast of the world in the application of science to war material. He was stare that the possibilities and opportunities for engineering skill would be utilised to the full.

The America Cup. -- The Royal Ulster Yacht Club, on behalf of Sir Thomas Lipton, rear-admiral, has cabled a challenge for the America Cup to the New York Yacht Club. It will be remembered that races for this trophy are arranged to take place in September, 1914, and Sir Thomas Lipton's yacht, Shamrock IV, arrived at New York some time after war broke out. She has been laid up in a specially constructed shed since then.

Irish Government Changes. -- The "Daily Chronicle" says -- "As Ireland will be one of the big subjects with which the new Parliament will have to wrestle, whether it likes it or not, some Conservatives as well as some Liberals would like to see the experiment of a Conservative Viceroy and Liberal Chief Secretary in the persons of Lord Granard and Sir Mark Sykes, a combination which would be as popular in Ireland as anything British could be."

Friend of the Deaf and Dumb. -- The death has occurred, in his 57th year, of Rev. Francis Maginn, for thirty years Superintendent of the Belfast (Protestant) Deaf and Dumb Mission. He was a son of Rev. C. A. Maginn, Rector and Rural Dean, Castletownroche, and, having lost his hearing in boyhood, decided to devote himself to the work indicated. Just a month ago he was the recipient of a handsome presentation from the members of the Mission.

Irish Champion Golfer Dead. -- The death is announced as having taken place on April 10 last, at the War Hospital, Le Cateau, of Michael Moran, the Irish professional golf champion. Moran, who shortly after the outbreak of war joined the S. I. Horse, was one of the greatest golfers of his time, and on one occasion ran into third place for the English open championship. He was a native of Dublin, and was for many years assistant professional at Dollymount.

Chaplain's Experiences in Germany. -- The Rev. Fr. B. Pike, O.P., one of the Hon. Chaplains to the Forces, lecturing in London on his experiences aa a prisoner of war at Karlsruhe, said most of the stories of atrocities were absolutely true. He witnessed a British officer who merely put his hand into his pocket for his handkerchief being shot through the head without warning by a sentry, and another soldier was bayoneted in the side for a trivial misdemeanour.

Big Lurgan Fire. -- A fire of a most destructive nature took place at the scutch mills of Messrs, Fitzsimmons & M'Dowell, Gibam's Hill, Corcreaney, about two miles from Lurgan. The buildings consisted of the scutching mill, boilerhouse, enginehouse, and extensive stores, and were built of brick with corrugated iron roofing. Only the boiler-house and chimney stack are left, the remainder being reduced to ruins. The damage is estimated at 5,000, and is covered by insurance.

The Tillage Order. -- The Department, having received numerous enquiries on the subject from persons desiring to sell or purchase land, think it well to explain that in the case of any holding, the occupier of which has failed, without reasonable cause, to cultivate in 1918 the acreage thereof required under the Tillage Orders applying to the holding, a penalty has beep incurred at the rate of 5 for each acre in default. This penalty is payable fry the person who is the occupier of the land as December 31st, 1918.

Belfast Major Released. -- Major Horace R. Haslett, Royal Irish Rifles, who was captured by the Germans on 27th May last, has been released and has reached his home, Elim, Bawnmore Road, Belfast. This officer is a son of the late Sir James Haslett, M.P. He went to the front in October, 1915, with the 9th Battalion Royal Irish Rifles (West Belfast), Ulster Division. He was wounded in the head on 17th December, 1915, and figured in the casualty lists for the second time in June, 1917, when he got a shrapnel wound in the thigh. He was serving with the East Yorkshire Regiment when be fell into the hands of the enemy. Major Haslett, wears the Croix de Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, conferred upon him by the President of the French Republics in recognition of his distinguished services rendered during the war.

Belfast Officer's Appointment. -- Captain Robert Alexander Tougher, Royal Army Service Corps, son of Alderman William Tougher, J.P., Danesfort, Annadale Avenue, Belfast, has been appointed Commandant of Hamah, between Beyrout and Aleppo in Northern Syria. For two years before the opening of the European War Captain Tougher held a commission in the Special Reserve, Royal Irish Fusiliers. He joined his regiment, when war was declared, but was immediately transferred to the R.A.S.C. During the operations on the Gallipoli Peninsula he took part in the memorable Suvla Bay landing, and subsequently commanded a Camel Transport Company with the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. For his service in Palestine he was mentioned in despatches by General Sir Edmund Allenby. Recently Captain Tougher was attached to the Royal Irish Regiment.



The Congregational Roll of Honour.

At the close of his sermon in Great James Street Presbyterian Church, Derry, on Sabbath morning, Rev. Dr. Thompson said -- From time to time I have made some reference to those of our members who have fallen in the service of the country. During the present year four at least have made the supreme sacrifice, and all were young men of excellent character, of unblemished reputation. Any congregation might be proud to reckon them among its members. James Mitchell, Thompson Harpur (whose parents now reside in Belfast), Jack Moon, and Hazlett Morrison all joined the war at the beginning, and were prompted by a sense of duty. All through they acquitted themselves as true, heroic soldiers. They took part in many a fight, but, at last the hour came when for them the struggle ended. For some months there was room for doubt as to the fate of Major Morrison, but recently a reliable report has come to hand that his grave has been found with his name upon it, and that he was buried by Germans. Hazlett Morrison, the son of one of our elders, grew up amongst us, and was a prime favourite with all who knew him. In the home his presence was like a gleam of sunshine. He was possessed of a beautiful spirit, a kindly disposition, and a generous nature. It would have been difficult not to like him. When he answered his country's call he was filling a responsible and prominent position, and had a promising career before him. In the army he received promotion again and again, until at last he became Major, and some time before his death was recommended for the M.C., and had the honour of being mentioned in despatches by Sir Douglas Haig. We mourn these and all the other brave young men who served their country so faithfully and died so nobly, and we shall ever honour their memory.


Captain Robert Watts, M.C., Royal Army Service Corps, attached Irish Rifles, has been awarded the Croix de Guerre in recognition of his distinguished services rendered during the war. This gallant officer, who is a son of the late Rev. Robt. J. Watts, of Kilmacrenan, County Donegal, is a solicitor by profession, and was in practice in Belfast before the opening of the war. This is hus third distinction for gallantry, his previous awards being the Military cross and a bar to that decoration.



Important Suggestion.

At a meeting of the General Assembly Business Committee representing the whole of the Irish Presbyterian Church, held at Belfast on Tuesday -- the Moderator (Right Rev. Dr. M'Granahan) presiding -- it was unanimously and heartily agreed that a Church memorial should be provided, to the members of the Church who had fallen in the war, and constituting a tribute to members of the Church who had served their King and country in the great struggle. A large and representative committee was appointed to consider and decide on the form of the memorial, and it was arranged that it should meet to-day.


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